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Open AccessArticle

A High Docosahexaenoic Acid Diet Alters the Lung Inflammatory Response to Acute Dust Exposure

1
Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
2
Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
3
Environmental Influences on Health and Disease Group, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of South Dakota—Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, USA
5
VA Nebraska-Western Iowa Healthcare System, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082334
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 25 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health)
Agricultural workers are at risk for the development of acute and chronic lung diseases due to their exposure to organic agricultural dusts. A diet intervention using the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to be an effective therapeutic approach for alleviating a dust-induced inflammatory response. We thus hypothesized a high-DHA diet would alter the dust-induced inflammatory response through the increased production of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Mice were pre-treated with a DHA-rich diet 4 weeks before being intranasally challenged with a single dose of an extract made from dust collected from a concentrated swine feeding operation (HDE). This omega-3-fatty-acid-rich diet led to reduced arachidonic acid levels in the blood, enhanced macrophage recruitment, and increased the production of the DHA-derived SPM Resolvin D1 (RvD1) in the lung following HDE exposure. An assessment of transcript-level changes in the immune response demonstrated significant differences in immune pathway activation and alterations of numerous macrophage-associated genes among HDE-challenged mice fed a high DHA diet. Our data indicate that consuming a DHA-rich diet leads to the enhanced production of SPMs during an acute inflammatory challenge to dust, supporting a role for dietary DHA supplementation as a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing dust-induced lung inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); organic dust; lung inflammation; specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) omega-3 fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); organic dust; lung inflammation; specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM)
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Dominguez, E.C.; Heires, A.J.; Pavlik, J.; Larsen, T.D.; Guardado, S.; Sisson, J.H.; Baack, M.L.; Romberger, D.J.; Nordgren, T.M. A High Docosahexaenoic Acid Diet Alters the Lung Inflammatory Response to Acute Dust Exposure. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2334.

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