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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Betaine Addition Promotes Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis, Bile Acid Conversion, and Export in Rats

1
Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Department of Animal Science, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 430068, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051399
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
It is widely reported how betaine addition regulates lipid metabolism but how betaine affects cholesterol metabolism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of betaine in hepatic cholesterol metabolism of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly allocated to four groups and fed with a basal diet or a high-fat diet with or without 1% betaine. The experiment lasted 28 days. The results showed that dietary betaine supplementation reduced the feed intake of rats with final weight unchanged. Serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol was increased with the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet promoted cholesterol synthesis and excretion by enhancing the HMG-CoA reductase and ABCG5/G8, respectively, which lead to a balance of hepatic cholesterol. Rats in betaine groups showed a higher level of hepatic total cholesterol. Dietary betaine addition enhanced cholesterol synthesis as well as conversion of bile acid from cholesterol by increasing the levels of HMGCR and CYP7A1. The high-fat diet decreased the level of bile salt export pump, while dietary betaine addition inhibited this decrease and promoted bile acid efflux and increased total bile acid levels in the intestine. In summary, dietary betaine addition promoted hepatic cholesterol metabolism, including cholesterol synthesis, conversion of bile acids, and bile acid export. View Full-Text
Keywords: betaine; cholesterol metabolism; cholesterol synthesis; cholesterol transport; bile acids efflux betaine; cholesterol metabolism; cholesterol synthesis; cholesterol transport; bile acids efflux
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, S.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.; Feng, J. Dietary Betaine Addition Promotes Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis, Bile Acid Conversion, and Export in Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1399.

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