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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Protein, Fiber and Coffee Are Associated with Small Intestine Microbiome Composition and Diversity in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

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Cedars-Sinai Cancer and Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
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The Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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UCLA Microbiome Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
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Department of Medicine and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
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Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shehnaz Hussain, PhD, Associate Professor, 700 N. San Vicente Blvd, Pacific Design Center G599, West Hollywood, CA 90069, USA.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051395
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 May 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Liver-Related Diseases)
The gut microbiome is a key factor in chronic liver disease progression. In prior research, we found that the duodenal microbiome was associated with sex, ethnicity, and cirrhosis complications. Here, we examined the association between diet and the duodenal microbiome in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study included 51 participants who completed a detailed food frequency questionnaire and donated duodenal biopsies for microbiome characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Data were analyzed for alpha diversity, beta diversity, and association of taxa abundance with diet quality and components using QIIME 2 pipelines. Diet quality was assessed through calculation of the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Participants with higher adherence to protein recommendations exhibited increased microbial richness and evenness (p = 0.03) and a different microbial profile compared to those with lower adherence (p = 0.03). Prevotella-9 and Agathobacter were increased in association with increased protein adherence. Fiber consumption was also associated with the duodenal microbial profile (p = 0.01), with several taxa exhibiting significantly decreased or increased abundance in association with fiber intake. Coffee drinking was associated with microbial richness and evenness (p = 0.001), and there was a dose–response association between coffee drinking and relative abundance of Veillonella (p = 0.01). We conclude that protein, fiber, and coffee are associated with diversity and composition of the duodenal microbiome in liver cirrhosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cirrhosis; duodenal microbiome; diet liver cirrhosis; duodenal microbiome; diet
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Hussain, S.K.; Dong, T.S.; Agopian, V.; Pisegna, J.R.; Durazo, F.A.; Enayati, P.; Sundaram, V.; Benhammou, J.N.; Noureddin, M.; Choi, G.; Ayoub, W.S.; Lagishetty, V.; Elashoff, D.; Goodman, M.T.; Jacobs, J.P. Dietary Protein, Fiber and Coffee Are Associated with Small Intestine Microbiome Composition and Diversity in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1395.

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