Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type (SARS-CoV2, also known as COVID-19), which is the latest pandemic infectious disease, constitutes a serious risk to human health. SARS-CoV2 infection causes immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation which can lead to respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS victims are characterized by a significant increase in IL-6 and IL-1. Macrophage activation, associated with the “cytokine storm”, promotes the dysregulation of the innate immunity. So far, without vaccines or specific therapy, all efforts to design drugs or clinical trials are worthwhile. Vitamin D and its receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) exert a critical role in infections due to their remarkable impact on both innate and adaptive immune responses and on the suppression of the inflammatory process. The protective properties of vitamin D supplementation have been supported by numerous observational studies and by meta-analysis of clinical trials for prevention of viral acute respiratory infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms of the host immune response to SARS-CoV2 infection and the immunomodulatory actions that vitamin D exerts in order to consider the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation on SARS-CoV2 viral infection.
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