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Article

Effect of Defatted Dabai Pulp Extract in Urine Metabolomics of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

1
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Research Centre for Excellence for Nutrition and Non-communicable Disease, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
3
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
5
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113511
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 8 November 2020 / Accepted: 12 November 2020 / Published: 14 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Nutrition)
A source of functional food can be utilized from a source that might otherwise be considered waste. This study investigates the hypocholesterolemic effect of defatted dabai pulp (DDP) from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and the metabolic alterations associated with the therapeutic effects of DDP using 1H NMR urinary metabolomic analysis. Male-specific pathogen-free Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days to induce hypercholesterolemia. Later, the rats were administered with a 2% DDP treatment diet for another 30 days. Supplementation with the 2% DDP treatment diet significantly reduced the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (α-TNF)) and significantly increased the level of antioxidant profile (total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GPX), and catalase (CAT)) compared with the positive control group (PG) group (p < 0.05). The presence of high dietary fibre (28.73 ± 1.82 g/100 g) and phenolic compounds (syringic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid) are potential factors contributing to the beneficial effect. Assessment of 1H NMR urinary metabolomics revealed that supplementation of 2% of DDP can partially recover the dysfunction in the metabolism induced by hypercholesterolemia via choline metabolism. 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of urine from hypercholesterolemic rats in this study uncovered the therapeutic effect of DDP to combat hypercholesterolemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; defatted dabai pulp; hypercholesterolemia; NMR metabolomics; supercritical fluid extraction; total dietary fibre antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; defatted dabai pulp; hypercholesterolemia; NMR metabolomics; supercritical fluid extraction; total dietary fibre
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kadir, N.A.A.A.; Azlan, A.; Abas, F.; Ismail, I.S. Effect of Defatted Dabai Pulp Extract in Urine Metabolomics of Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3511. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113511

AMA Style

Kadir NAAA, Azlan A, Abas F, Ismail IS. Effect of Defatted Dabai Pulp Extract in Urine Metabolomics of Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3511. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113511

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kadir, Noor A.A.A., Azrina Azlan, Faridah Abas, and Intan S. Ismail. 2020. "Effect of Defatted Dabai Pulp Extract in Urine Metabolomics of Hypercholesterolemic Rats" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3511. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113511

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