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Article

Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Psychological Health, and Diet Quality among Healthy Midlife Adults

1
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
2
The Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
5
Heart and Vascular Institute, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113414
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Wellbeing across the Life Course)
Mindfulness, a practice of non-judgmental awareness of present experience, has been associated with reduced eating psychopathology and emotion-driven eating. However, it remains unclear whether mindfulness relates to diet quality. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with diet quality and to explore psychological factors relating dispositional mindfulness to diet quality. Community-dwelling adults (N = 406; Mage = 43.19, SD = 7.26; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 27.08, SD = 5.28; 52% female) completed ratings of dispositional mindfulness, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, from which the 2015 Healthy Eating Index was derived. Analyses were conducted using the “lavaan” package in R with bias-corrected bootstrapped confidence intervals (BootCI). Age, sex, race, education, and BMI were entered as covariates in all models. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with higher diet quality (β = 0.11, p = 0.03), and this effect was mediated through lower depressive symptoms (indirect effect β = 0.06, p = 0.02, BootCI = 0.104–1.42, p = 0.03). Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with perceived stress (β = −0.31, p < 0.01) and NA (β = −0.43, p < 0.01), as well as positively correlated with PA (β = −0.26, p < 0.01). However, these factors were unrelated to diet quality. These cross-sectional data provide initial evidence that dispositional mindfulness relates to diet quality among midlife adults, an effect that may be explained in part by less depressive symptomatology. Given that lifestyle behaviors in midlife are leading determinants of risk for cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive impairment in late life, interventions to enhance mindfulness in midlife may mitigate disease risk. Additional research assessing the impact of mindfulness interventions on diet quality are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: dispositional mindfulness; depressive symptoms; diet quality; healthy eating index dispositional mindfulness; depressive symptoms; diet quality; healthy eating index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Donofry, S.D.; Erickson, K.I.; Levine, M.D.; Gianaros, P.J.; Muldoon, M.F.; Manuck, S.B. Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Psychological Health, and Diet Quality among Healthy Midlife Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3414. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113414

AMA Style

Donofry SD, Erickson KI, Levine MD, Gianaros PJ, Muldoon MF, Manuck SB. Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Psychological Health, and Diet Quality among Healthy Midlife Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3414. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Donofry, Shannon D., Kirk I. Erickson, Michele D. Levine, Peter J. Gianaros, Matthew F. Muldoon, and Stephen B. Manuck. 2020. "Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Psychological Health, and Diet Quality among Healthy Midlife Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3414. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113414

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