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Article

Vitamin D Metabolite Profile in Cholecalciferol- or Calcitriol-Supplemented Healthy and Mammary Gland Tumor-Bearing Mice

1
Department of Experimental Oncology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Research and Development Center Masdiag, 01-882 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland
4
Department of Physiotherapy, Wroclaw University School of Physical Education, 51-612 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113416
Received: 22 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
To analyze if the prometastatic activity of calcitriol (active vitamin D3 metabolite), which was previously observed in a 4T1 breast cancer model, is also found in other breast cancers, and to assess the impact of various schemes of vitamin D supply, we used 4T1 and E0771 mouse metastatic and 67NR nonmetastatic cells in this study. BALB/c and C57BL/6 healthy and tumor-bearing mice were exposed to a control (1000 IU), low- (100 IU), and high- (5000 IU) vitamin D3 diets. Additionally, from day 7 of tumor transplantation, the 1000 and 100 IU groups were gavaged with calcitriol (+cal). After 8 weeks of feeding, plasma levels of 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were significantly lower in calcitriol-treated and vitamin D-deficient groups than in the control, whereas the levels of all metabolites were increased in the 5000 IU group. The ratio of 25(OH)D3:24,25(OH)2D3 was increased in both calcitriol-treated groups, whereas the ratio of 25(OH)D3:3-epi-25(OH)D3 was increased only in the 100 IU group but decreased in the 5000 IU group. In contrast to E0771, 4T1 lung metastasis was accelerated in all vitamin D-supplemented mice, as well as in the deficient group with an increased inflammatory response. 67NR tumor growth was transiently inhibited in the 1000 IU+cal group, but single metastases were observed in the 5000 and 100 IU groups. Based on the results, we conclude that various schemes of vitamin D supply and vitamin D deficiency led to similar metabolite profiles irrespective of the mice strain and tumor burden. However, depending on the type of breast cancer, different effects on tumor growth and metastasis were noticed. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcitriol; cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; breast cancer; vitamin D metabolites; 25(OH)D3; 24,25(OH)2D3; 3-epi-25(OH)D3; BALB/c; C57BL/6 calcitriol; cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; breast cancer; vitamin D metabolites; 25(OH)D3; 24,25(OH)2D3; 3-epi-25(OH)D3; BALB/c; C57BL/6
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anisiewicz, A.; Kowalski, K.; Banach, J.; Łabędź, N.; Stachowicz-Suhs, M.; Piotrowska, A.; Milczarek, M.; Kłopotowska, D.; Dzięgiel, P.; Wietrzyk, J. Vitamin D Metabolite Profile in Cholecalciferol- or Calcitriol-Supplemented Healthy and Mammary Gland Tumor-Bearing Mice. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113416

AMA Style

Anisiewicz A, Kowalski K, Banach J, Łabędź N, Stachowicz-Suhs M, Piotrowska A, Milczarek M, Kłopotowska D, Dzięgiel P, Wietrzyk J. Vitamin D Metabolite Profile in Cholecalciferol- or Calcitriol-Supplemented Healthy and Mammary Gland Tumor-Bearing Mice. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anisiewicz, Artur, Konrad Kowalski, Joanna Banach, Natalia Łabędź, Martyna Stachowicz-Suhs, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Magdalena Milczarek, Dagmara Kłopotowska, Piotr Dzięgiel, and Joanna Wietrzyk. 2020. "Vitamin D Metabolite Profile in Cholecalciferol- or Calcitriol-Supplemented Healthy and Mammary Gland Tumor-Bearing Mice" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113416

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