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Article

Vitamin D Supplementation during Winter: Effects on Stress Resilience in a Randomized Control Trial

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Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Christiesgt. 12, 5015 Bergen, Norway
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Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
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Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center (SRSTC), P.O. Box 0700, 1111 North Road, Mauston, WI 53948, USA
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Forensic Assessment, Training and Research, LLC 1213 N. Sherman Avenue, Suite 334, Madison, WI 53704, USA
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Department of Seafood, Nutrition and Environmental State, Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
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Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5021 Bergen, Norway
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Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Allégaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113258
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 24 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Vitamin D status may be important for stress resilience. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D supplements during winter on biological markers of stress resilience such as psychophysiological activity, serotonin, and cortisol in a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Eighty-six participants were randomly assigned to the Intervention (vitamin D) or Control (placebo) groups. Before and after the intervention participants were exposed to an experimental stress procedure. Psychophysiological activity was measured during three main conditions: baseline, stress, and recovery. Fasting blood samples were taken in the morning and saliva samples were collected at seven different time points across 24 h. Prior to intervention both groups had normal/sufficient vitamin D levels. Both groups showed a normal pattern of psychophysiological responses to the experimental stress procedure (i.e., increased psychophysiological responses from resting baseline to stress-condition, and decreased psychophysiological responses from stress-condition to recovery; all p < 0.009). Post-intervention, the Intervention group showed increased vitamin D levels (p < 0.001) and normal psychophysiological responses to the experimental stress procedure (p < 0.001). Importantly, the Control group demonstrated a classic nadir in vitamin D status post-intervention (spring) (p < 0.001) and did not show normal psychophysiological responses. Thus, physiologically the Control group showed a sustained stress response. No significant effects of vitamin D were found on serotonin and cortisol. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; stress resilience; heart rate variability; heart rate; serotonin; cortisol vitamin D; stress resilience; heart rate variability; heart rate; serotonin; cortisol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hansen, A.L.; Ambroziak, G.; Thornton, D.; Mundt, J.C.; Kahn, R.E.; Dahl, L.; Waage, L.; Kattenbraker, D.; Araujo, P.; Murison, R.; Rypdal, K.; Grung, B. Vitamin D Supplementation during Winter: Effects on Stress Resilience in a Randomized Control Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113258

AMA Style

Hansen AL, Ambroziak G, Thornton D, Mundt JC, Kahn RE, Dahl L, Waage L, Kattenbraker D, Araujo P, Murison R, Rypdal K, Grung B. Vitamin D Supplementation during Winter: Effects on Stress Resilience in a Randomized Control Trial. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hansen, Anita L., Gina Ambroziak, David Thornton, James C. Mundt, Rachel E. Kahn, Lisbeth Dahl, Leif Waage, Daniel Kattenbraker, Pedro Araujo, Robert Murison, Knut Rypdal, and Bjørn Grung. 2020. "Vitamin D Supplementation during Winter: Effects on Stress Resilience in a Randomized Control Trial" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3258. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113258

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