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Adolescent Obesity: Diet Quality, Psychosocial Health, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

1
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Center for Nutrition in Schools, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Stress Biology and Human Nutrition Research Lab, Obesity and Metabolism Research Unit, USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010043
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients Intake and Adolescent Health)
Obesity is a multifaceted chronic condition with several contributing causes, including biological risk factors, socioeconomic status, health literacy, and numerous environmental influences. Of particular concern are the increasing rates of obesity in children and adolescents, as rates of obesity in youth in the United States have tripled within the last three decades. Youth from historically disadvantaged backgrounds tend to have higher rates of obesity compared to other groups. Adolescents often do not meet intake recommendations for certain food groups and nutrients, which may contribute to a heightened risk of obesity. With obesity disproportionately affecting adolescents (ages 12–19 years), negative effects of excess adiposity may be particularly salient during this critical period of development. The presentation of chronic cardiometabolic disease symptoms typically observed in adults, such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, are becoming increasingly common in adolescents with obesity. Additionally, there is dynamic interplay between obesity and psychosocial health, as adolescents with obesity may have increased levels of stress, depressive symptoms, and reduced resilience. To reduce and prevent adolescent obesity, the implementation of theory-driven multicomponent school- and community-based interventions have been suggested. These interventions promote knowledge and self-efficacy for healthful practices that have the potential to progress to sustained behavior change. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescent; obesity; severe obesity; diet quality; psychosocial health; stress; cardiometabolic risk; food literacy adolescent; obesity; severe obesity; diet quality; psychosocial health; stress; cardiometabolic risk; food literacy
MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz, L.D.; Zuelch, M.L.; Dimitratos, S.M.; Scherr, R.E. Adolescent Obesity: Diet Quality, Psychosocial Health, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. Nutrients 2020, 12, 43.

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