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Article

Relationship of the Frequency, Distribution, and Content of Meals/Snacks to Glycaemic Control in Gestational Diabetes: The myfood24 GDM Pilot Study

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Leeds Institute for Data Analytics, School of Medicine, Level 11 Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Sheffield Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
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School of Primary Care, Population Sciences and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010003
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
This study examines nutritional intakes in Gestational diabetes mellitus piloting the myfood24 tool, to explore frequency of meals/snacks, and daily distribution of calories and carbohydrates in relation to glycaemic control. A total of 200 women aged 20–43 years were recruited into this prospective observational study between February 2015 and February 2016. Diet was assessed using myfood24, a novel online 24-h dietary recall tool. Out of 200 women 102 completed both ≥1 dietary recalls and all blood glucose measurements. Blood glucose was self-measured as part of usual care. Differences between groups meeting and exceeding glucose targets in relation to frequency of meal/snack consumption and nutrients were assessed using chi-squared and Mann–Whitney tests. Women achieving a fasting glucose target <5.3 mmol/L, compared to those exceeding it, consumed three meals (92% vs. 78%: p = 0.04) and three snacks (10% vs. 4%: p = 0.06) per day, compared with two or less; and in relation to evening snacks, consumed a higher percentage of daily energy (6% vs. 5%: p = 0.03) and carbohydrates (8% vs. 6%: p = 0.01). Achieving glycaemic control throughout the day was positively associated with snacking (p = 0.008). Achieving glucose targets was associated with having more snacks across the day, and may be associated with frequency and distribution of meals and nutrients. A larger study is required to confirm this. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; glycaemic control; online dietary assessment; snacking gestational diabetes mellitus; glycaemic control; online dietary assessment; snacking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morris, M.A.; Hutchinson, J.; Gianfrancesco, C.; Alwan, N.A.; Carter, M.C.; Scott, E.M.; Cade, J.E. Relationship of the Frequency, Distribution, and Content of Meals/Snacks to Glycaemic Control in Gestational Diabetes: The myfood24 GDM Pilot Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010003

AMA Style

Morris MA, Hutchinson J, Gianfrancesco C, Alwan NA, Carter MC, Scott EM, Cade JE. Relationship of the Frequency, Distribution, and Content of Meals/Snacks to Glycaemic Control in Gestational Diabetes: The myfood24 GDM Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morris, Michelle A., Jayne Hutchinson, Carla Gianfrancesco, Nisreen A. Alwan, Michelle C. Carter, Eleanor M. Scott, and Janet E. Cade. 2020. "Relationship of the Frequency, Distribution, and Content of Meals/Snacks to Glycaemic Control in Gestational Diabetes: The myfood24 GDM Pilot Study" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010003

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