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Article

Impact of the Apolipoprotein E (epsilon) Genotype on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Responsiveness to Acute and Chronic Dietary Fat Manipulation

1
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food & Nutritional Sciences and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
2
Department of Applied Nutrition, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura 60170, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092044
Received: 22 July 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 1 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Gene Interactions)
Apolipoprotein (APO) E (ε) genotype is considered to play an important role in lipid responses to dietary fat manipulation but the impact on novel cardiometabolic risk markers is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the relationship between the APOE genotype and cardiometabolic risk markers in response to acute and chronic dietary fat intakes. Associations with fasting (baseline) outcome measures (n = 218) were determined using data from the chronic DIVAS (n = 191/195 adults at moderate cardiovascular disease risk) and acute DIVAS-2 (n = 27/32 postmenopausal women) studies examining the effects of diets/meals varying in saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid composition. Participants were retrospectively genotyped for APOE (rs429358, rs7412). For baseline cardiometabolic outcomes, E4 carriers had higher fasting total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C: HDL-C ratios, but lower C-reactive protein (CRP) than E3/E3 and E2 carriers (p ≤ 0.003). Digital volume pulse stiffness index was higher in E2 carriers than the E3/E3 group (p = 0.011). Following chronic dietary fat intake, the significant diet × genotype interaction was found for fasting triacylglycerol (p = 0.010), with indication of a differential responsiveness to MUFA intake between the E3/E3 and E4 carriers (p = 0.006). Test fat × genotype interactions were observed for the incremental area under the curve for the postprandial apolipoprotein B (apoB; p = 0.022) and digital volume pulse reflection index (DVP-RI; p = 0.030) responses after the MUFA-rich meals, with a reduction in E4 carriers and increase in the E3/E3 group for the apoB response, but an increase in E4 carriers and decrease in the E3/E3 group for the DVP-RI response. In conclusion, baseline associations between the APOE genotype and fasting lipids and CRP confirm previous findings, although a novel interaction with digital volume pulse arterial stiffness was observed in the fasted state and differential postprandial apoB and DVP-RI responses after the MUFA-rich meals. The reported differential impact of the APOE genotype on cardiometabolic markers in the acute and chronic state requires confirmation. View Full-Text
Keywords: APOE; cardiometabolic risk markers; dietary fat; fat manipulation APOE; cardiometabolic risk markers; dietary fat; fat manipulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rathnayake, K.M.; Weech, M.; Jackson, K.G.; Lovegrove, J.A. Impact of the Apolipoprotein E (epsilon) Genotype on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Responsiveness to Acute and Chronic Dietary Fat Manipulation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092044

AMA Style

Rathnayake KM, Weech M, Jackson KG, Lovegrove JA. Impact of the Apolipoprotein E (epsilon) Genotype on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Responsiveness to Acute and Chronic Dietary Fat Manipulation. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rathnayake, Kumari M., Michelle Weech, Kim G. Jackson, and Julie A. Lovegrove. 2019. "Impact of the Apolipoprotein E (epsilon) Genotype on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Responsiveness to Acute and Chronic Dietary Fat Manipulation" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092044

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