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Open AccessArticle

Carbohydrates in Human Milk and Body Composition of Term Infants during the First 12 Months of Lactation

1
School of Molecular Sciences, M310, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
2
Centre for Applied Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
3
School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
4
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
5
School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071472
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding: Short and Long-Term Benefits to Baby and Mother)
Human milk (HM) carbohydrates may affect infant appetite regulation, breastfeeding patterns, and body composition (BC). We investigated relationships between concentrations/calculated daily intakes (CDI) of HM carbohydrates in first year postpartum and maternal/term infant BC, as well as breastfeeding parameters. BC of dyads (n = 20) was determined at 2, 5, 9, and/or 12 months postpartum using ultrasound skinfolds (infants) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (infants/mothers). Breastfeeding frequency, 24-h milk intake and total carbohydrates (TCH) and lactose were measured to calculate HM oligosaccharides (HMO) concentration and CDI of carbohydrates. Statistical analysis used linear regression/mixed effects models; results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Higher TCH concentrations were associated with greater infant length, weight, fat-free mass (FFM), and FFM index (FFMI), and decreased fat mass (FM), FM index (FMI), %FM and FM/FFM ratio. Higher HMO concentrations were associated with greater infant FFM and FFMI, and decreased FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM ratio. Higher TCH CDI were associated with greater FM, FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM ratio, and decreased infant FFMI. Higher lactose CDI were associated with greater FM, FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM, ratio and decreased FFMI. Concentrations and intakes of HM carbohydrates differentially influence development of infant BC in the first 12 months postpartum, and may potentially influence risk of later obesity via modulation of BC. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk carbohydrates; lactose; oligosaccharides; infant; body composition; lactation; daily intake; breastfeeding frequency; milk intake human milk carbohydrates; lactose; oligosaccharides; infant; body composition; lactation; daily intake; breastfeeding frequency; milk intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gridneva, Z.; Rea, A.; Tie, W.J.; Lai, C.T.; Kugananthan, S.; Ward, L.C.; Murray, K.; Hartmann, P.E.; Geddes, D.T. Carbohydrates in Human Milk and Body Composition of Term Infants during the First 12 Months of Lactation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1472.

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