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Review

The Intestinal Fate of Citrus Flavanones and Their Effects on Gastrointestinal Health

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
BioActor BV, Gaetano Martinolaan 85, 6229 GS Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Research Group Food Chemistry and Human Nutrition, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
4
ProDigest BVBA, Technologiepark 82, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071464
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
Citrus flavanones, with hesperidin and naringin as the most abundant representatives, have various beneficial effects, including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Evidence also indicates that they may impact the intestinal microbiome and are metabolized by the microbiota as well, thereby affecting their bioavailability. In this review, we provide an overview on the current evidence on the intestinal fate of hesperidin and naringin, their interaction with the gut microbiota, and their effects on intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. These topics will be discussed as they may contribute to gastrointestinal health in various diseases. Evidence shows that hesperidin and naringin are metabolized by intestinal bacteria, mainly in the (proximal) colon, resulting in the formation of their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin and various smaller phenolics. Studies have also shown that citrus flavanones and their metabolites are able to influence the microbiota composition and activity and exert beneficial effects on intestinal barrier function and gastrointestinal inflammation. Although the exact underlying mechanisms of action are not completely clear and more research in human subjects is needed, evidence so far suggests that citrus flavanones as well as their metabolites have the potential to contribute to improved gastrointestinal function and health. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus flavanones; intestinal microbiota; intestinal barrier function; intestinal inflammation; gastrointestinal health citrus flavanones; intestinal microbiota; intestinal barrier function; intestinal inflammation; gastrointestinal health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stevens, Y.; Rymenant, E.V.; Grootaert, C.; Camp, J.V.; Possemiers, S.; Masclee, A.; Jonkers, D. The Intestinal Fate of Citrus Flavanones and Their Effects on Gastrointestinal Health. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071464

AMA Style

Stevens Y, Rymenant EV, Grootaert C, Camp JV, Possemiers S, Masclee A, Jonkers D. The Intestinal Fate of Citrus Flavanones and Their Effects on Gastrointestinal Health. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stevens, Yala, Evelien V. Rymenant, Charlotte Grootaert, John V. Camp, Sam Possemiers, Adrian Masclee, and Daisy Jonkers. 2019. "The Intestinal Fate of Citrus Flavanones and Their Effects on Gastrointestinal Health" Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071464

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