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Open AccessArticle

Modulation of Saliva Microbiota through Prebiotic Intervention in HIV-Infected Individuals

Área de Genómica y Salud, Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana (FISABIO), 46020 Valencia, Spain
CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas/Medicina Interna, Hospital Clínico San Carlos-IdiSSC, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Instituto de Biología Integrativa de Sistemas, Universidad de Valencia y CSIC, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1346;
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by an early depletion of the mucosal associated T helper (CD4+) cells that impair the host immunity and impact the oral and gut microbiomes. Although, the HIV-associated gut microbiota was studied in depth, few works addressed the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in HIV infection and, to our knowledge, no studies on intervention with prebiotics were performed. We studied the effect of a six-week-long prebiotic administration on the salivary microbiota in HIV patients and healthy subjects. Also, the co-occurrence of saliva microorganisms in the fecal bacteria community was explored. We assessed salivary and feces microbiota composition using deep 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing with Illumina methodology. At baseline, the different groups shared the same most abundant genera, but the HIV status had an impact on the saliva microbiota composition and diversity parameters. After the intervention with prebiotics, we found a drastic decrease in alpha diversity parameters, as well as a change of beta diversity, without a clear directionality toward a healthy microbiota. Interestingly, we found a differential response to the prebiotics, depending on the initial microbiota. On the basis of 100% identity clustering, we detected saliva sequences in the feces datasets, suggesting a drag of microorganisms from the upper to the lower gastrointestinal tract. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotic intervention; saliva; microbiota; HIV; bacteria co-occurrence; gut prebiotic intervention; saliva; microbiota; HIV; bacteria co-occurrence; gut
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Jiménez-Hernández, N.; Serrano-Villar, S.; Domingo, A.; Pons, X.; Artacho, A.; Estrada, V.; Moya, A.; Gosalbes, M.J. Modulation of Saliva Microbiota through Prebiotic Intervention in HIV-Infected Individuals. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1346.

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