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Fluctuation of Water Intake and of Hydration Indices during the Day in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults

Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Str., 11855 Athens, Greece
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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040793
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Health: Scientific Evidence and Recommendations)
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Abstract

Mild dehydration may occur during specific periods of the day because of poor hydration habits and/or limited access to a variety of beverages or foods, for example, in work environments. Measurement of hydration indices in spot or in 24 h urine samples may mask mild dehydration in specific periods of the day. Healthy subjects (n = 164; 74 females; age 38 ± 12 years) living in Athens, Greece were enrolled in the study. Subjects recorded their solid food and drink intakes and recorded and collected all urinations for three consecutive days. Water intake was analyzed in 24 h and 6 h periods from wake-up time and scored for variety. Urine hydration indices (osmolality, volume, color, specific gravity) were analyzed in 24 h samples, in morning urine samples and in samples collected in 6 h periods from wake-up time. Fluctuations during the day were significant for the intake of drinking water, hot beverages, milk, fruit and vegetable juices, and alcoholic drinks and for urine osmolality, volume, color, and specific gravity. The urine volume of the first 6 h period after wake-up time (557 ± 231 mL/day) reflects by 76% the 24 h urine collection (1331 ± 144 mL/day). Water intake from all beverages, with the exception of alcoholic beverages, was greater in the first 6h period (morning period) and decreased throughout the day. Hydration indices changed accordingly. The 6 h timed urine sample collected reflects indices in samples collected over 24 h better than any spot urine sample. View Full-Text
Keywords: water intake; beverages consumption; hydration indices; spot urine samples; urine fluctuations water intake; beverages consumption; hydration indices; spot urine samples; urine fluctuations
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Athanasatou, A.; Kandyliari, A.; Malisova, O.; Kapsokefalou, M. Fluctuation of Water Intake and of Hydration Indices during the Day in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 793.

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