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Article

Quantification of Human Milk Phospholipids: the Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on Phospholipid Composition

1
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, 5792 Årslev, Denmark
2
School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland
3
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020222
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk and Lactation)
Human milk (HM) provides infants with macro- and micronutrients needed for growth and development. Milk phospholipids are important sources of bioactive components, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and choline, crucial for neural and visual development. Milk from mothers who have delivered prematurely (<37 weeks) might not meet the nutritional requirements for optimal development and growth. Using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry, 31 phospholipid (PL) species were quantified for colostrum (<5 days postpartum), transitional (≥5 days and ≤2 weeks) and mature milk (>2 weeks and ≤15 weeks) samples from mothers who had delivered preterm (n = 57) and term infants (n = 22), respectively. Both gestational age and age postpartum affected the PL composition of HM. Significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) of phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM) and total PL were found in preterm milk throughout lactation, as well as significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.002) of several phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), PC and SM species. Multivariate analysis revealed that PLs containing LC-PUFA contributed highly to the differences in the PL composition of preterm and term colostrum. Differences related to gestation decreased as the milk matured. Thus, gestational age may impact the PL content of colostrum, however this effect of gestation might subside in mature milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: Human Milk; Preterm infant; Phospholipids; Lipidomics; Milk Fat Globule Membrane Human Milk; Preterm infant; Phospholipids; Lipidomics; Milk Fat Globule Membrane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ingvordsen Lindahl, I.E.; Artegoitia, V.M.; Downey, E.; O’Mahony, J.A.; O’Shea, C.-A.; Ryan, C.A.; Kelly, A.L.; Bertram, H.C.; Sundekilde, U.K. Quantification of Human Milk Phospholipids: the Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on Phospholipid Composition. Nutrients 2019, 11, 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020222

AMA Style

Ingvordsen Lindahl IE, Artegoitia VM, Downey E, O’Mahony JA, O’Shea C-A, Ryan CA, Kelly AL, Bertram HC, Sundekilde UK. Quantification of Human Milk Phospholipids: the Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on Phospholipid Composition. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):222. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ingvordsen Lindahl, Ida E., Virginia M. Artegoitia, Eimear Downey, James A. O’Mahony, Carol-Anne O’Shea, C. A. Ryan, Alan L. Kelly, Hanne C. Bertram, and Ulrik K. Sundekilde 2019. "Quantification of Human Milk Phospholipids: the Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on Phospholipid Composition" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020222

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