Celiac disease, wheat sensitivity, and allergy represent three different reactions, which may occur in genetically predisposed individuals on the ingestion of wheat and derived products with various manifestations. Improvements in the disease diagnostics and understanding of disease etiology unveiled that these disorders are widespread around the globe affecting about 7% of the population. The only known treatment so far is a life-long gluten-free diet, which is almost impossible to follow because of the contamination of allegedly “gluten-free” products. Accidental contamination of inherently gluten-free products could take place at any level from field to shelf because of the ubiquity of these proteins/grains. Gluten contamination of allegedly “gluten-free” products is a constant threat to celiac patients and a major health concern. Several detection procedures have been proposed to determine the level of contamination in products for celiac patients. The present article aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different gluten detection methods, with emphasis on the recent technology that allows identification of the immunogenic-gluten peptides without the use of antibodies. The possibility to detect gluten contamination by different approaches with similar or better detection efficiency in different raw and processed foods will guarantee the safety of the foods for celiac patients.
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