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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091190

Methionine Partially Replaced by Methionyl-Methionine Dipeptide Improves Reproductive Performance over Methionine Alone in Methionine-Deficient Mice

1
College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parenteral Nutrition)
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Abstract

Decreased protein breakdown in pregnant women results in lower concentration of methionine (Met) in plasma, causing pregnancy-related metabolic disturbance. Its dipeptide methionyl-methionine (Met-Met) may exert positive influence in fetal development. This study mainly investigated whether Met-Met can be used as part of free Met to promote reproductive outcomes in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Met-deficient pregnant mice were treated with Met alone or with Met-Met during pregnancy. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 35% dietary Met in pregnant mice was the best dose among the 15–45% doses. Embryo development and newborn birth weight were enhanced when 25% of the Met in the 35% Met group was replaced with Met-Met. Met-Met replacement had higher plasma insulin, glucose, and free amino acids (AA) concentrations. Besides, in the placenta, the AA transporter mRNA abundances and peptide transporters (PhT1 and PepT1) protein levels were higher in Met-Met treatment group. Moreover, Met-Met increased 4E-BP1, S6K1 and AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. These results suggest that Met-Met could be used as a partial source of Met to promote reproductive outcomes in Met-restricted pregnant mice, which might be mediated by promoting nutrient availability and activating AKT/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: methionyl-methionine; methionine; amino acid; reproduction; AKT/mTOR signaling pathway methionyl-methionine; methionine; amino acid; reproduction; AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, Q.; Dai, W.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, H. Methionine Partially Replaced by Methionyl-Methionine Dipeptide Improves Reproductive Performance over Methionine Alone in Methionine-Deficient Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1190.

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