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Article

MDPrePost-Net: A Spatial-Spectral-Temporal Fully Convolutional Network for Mapping of Mangrove Degradation Affected by Hurricane Irma 2017 Using Sentinel-2 Data

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Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli Dist., Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
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Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Rd., Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
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Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli Dist., Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
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Department of Applied Informatics, Fo Guang University, No. 160, Linwei Rd., Jiaoxi Township, Yilan City 262307, Taiwan
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Department of Communication Engineering, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli Dist., Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Zabalza
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(24), 5042; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245042
Received: 17 November 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 9 December 2021 / Published: 12 December 2021
Mangroves are grown in intertidal zones along tropical and subtropical climate areas, which have many benefits for humans and ecosystems. The knowledge of mangrove conditions is essential to know the statuses of mangroves. Recently, satellite imagery has been widely used to generate mangrove and degradation mapping. Sentinel-2 is a volume of free satellite image data that has a temporal resolution of 5 days. When Hurricane Irma hit the southwest Florida coastal zone in 2017, it caused mangrove degradation. The relationship of satellite images between pre and post-hurricane events can provide a deeper understanding of the degraded mangrove areas that were affected by Hurricane Irma. This study proposed an MDPrePost-Net that considers images before and after hurricanes to classify non-mangrove, intact/healthy mangroves, and degraded mangroves classes affected by Hurricane Irma in southwest Florida using Sentinel-2 data. MDPrePost-Net is an end-to-end fully convolutional network (FCN) that consists of two main sub-models. The first sub-model is a pre-post deep feature extractor used to extract the spatial–spectral–temporal relationship between the pre, post, and mangrove conditions after the hurricane from the satellite images and the second sub-model is an FCN classifier as the classification part from extracted spatial–spectral–temporal deep features. Experimental results show that the accuracy and Intersection over Union (IoU) score by the proposed MDPrePost-Net for degraded mangrove are 98.25% and 96.82%, respectively. Based on the experimental results, MDPrePost-Net outperforms the state-of-the-art FCN models (e.g., U-Net, LinkNet, FPN, and FC-DenseNet) in terms of accuracy metrics. In addition, this study found that 26.64% (41,008.66 Ha) of the mangrove area was degraded due to Hurricane Irma along the southwest Florida coastal zone and the other 73.36% (112,924.70 Ha) mangrove area remained intact. View Full-Text
Keywords: fully convolutional network; convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM); mangroves degradation; Hurricane Irma; Sentinel-2 fully convolutional network; convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM); mangroves degradation; Hurricane Irma; Sentinel-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jamaluddin, I.; Thaipisutikul, T.; Chen, Y.-N.; Chuang, C.-H.; Hu, C.-L. MDPrePost-Net: A Spatial-Spectral-Temporal Fully Convolutional Network for Mapping of Mangrove Degradation Affected by Hurricane Irma 2017 Using Sentinel-2 Data. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 5042. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245042

AMA Style

Jamaluddin I, Thaipisutikul T, Chen Y-N, Chuang C-H, Hu C-L. MDPrePost-Net: A Spatial-Spectral-Temporal Fully Convolutional Network for Mapping of Mangrove Degradation Affected by Hurricane Irma 2017 Using Sentinel-2 Data. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(24):5042. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jamaluddin, Ilham, Tipajin Thaipisutikul, Ying-Nong Chen, Chi-Hung Chuang, and Chih-Lin Hu. 2021. "MDPrePost-Net: A Spatial-Spectral-Temporal Fully Convolutional Network for Mapping of Mangrove Degradation Affected by Hurricane Irma 2017 Using Sentinel-2 Data" Remote Sensing 13, no. 24: 5042. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245042

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