Next Article in Journal
A New Approach for Estimating Soil Salinity Using A Low-Cost Soil Sensor In Situ: A Case Study in Saline Regions of China’s East Coast
Next Article in Special Issue
Near Real-Time Automated Early Mapping of the Perimeter of Large Forest Fires from the Aggregation of VIIRS and MODIS Active Fires in Mexico
Previous Article in Journal
A Spatially Transferable Drought Hazard and Drought Risk Modeling Approach Based on Remote Sensing Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
Preliminary Results from a Wildfire Detection System Using Deep Learning on Remote Camera Images
Letter

Potential Underestimation of Satellite Fire Radiative Power Retrievals over Gas Flares and Wildland Fires

1
ASRC Federal Data Solutions contractor to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, 47914 252nd Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57198, USA
2
KBR, Contractor to USGS EROS Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198, USA
3
USGS EROS Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020238
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 27 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 10 January 2020
Fire Radiative Power (FRP) is related to fire combustion rates and is used to quantify the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols. FRP over gas flares and wildfires can be retrieved remotely using satellites that observe in shortwave infrared (SWIR) to middle infrared (MIR) wavelengths. Heritage techniques to retrieve FRP developed for wildland fires using the MIR 4 μm radiances have been adapted for the hotter burning gas flares using the SWIR 2 μm observations. Effects of atmosphere, including smoke and aerosols, are assumed to be minimal in these algorithms because of the use of longer than visual wavelengths. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Landsat 8 observations acquired before and during emergency oil and gas flaring in eastern Saudi Arabia to show that dark, sooty smoke affects both 4 μm and 2 μm observations. While the 2 μm observations used to retrieve gas FRP may be reliable during clear atmospheric conditions, performance is severely impacted by dark smoke. Global remote sensing-based inventories of wildfire and gas flaring need to consider the possibility that soot and dark smoke can potentially lead to an underestimation of FRP over fires. View Full-Text
Keywords: MODIS; VIIRS; Landsat; gas flare; fire radiative power MODIS; VIIRS; Landsat; gas flare; fire radiative power
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, S.S.; Hult, J.; Picotte, J.; Peterson, B. Potential Underestimation of Satellite Fire Radiative Power Retrievals over Gas Flares and Wildland Fires. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020238

AMA Style

Kumar SS, Hult J, Picotte J, Peterson B. Potential Underestimation of Satellite Fire Radiative Power Retrievals over Gas Flares and Wildland Fires. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(2):238. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020238

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Sanath S., John Hult, Joshua Picotte, and Birgit Peterson. 2020. "Potential Underestimation of Satellite Fire Radiative Power Retrievals over Gas Flares and Wildland Fires" Remote Sensing 12, no. 2: 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020238

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop