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The Fourth Wave of Digitalization and Public Transport: Opportunities and Challenges

Internet of Things and People Research Center, K2—The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Department of Computer Science, Malmö University, Malmö 20506, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wijnand Veeneman and Eefje Cuppen
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1248;
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
PDF [222 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]


We investigate the opportunities and challenges of the forth wave of digitalization, also referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT), with respect to public transport and how it can support sustainable development of society. Environmental, economical, and social perspectives are considered through analysis of the existing literature and explorative studies. We conclude that there are great opportunities for both transport operators and planners, as well as for the travelers. We describe and analyze a number of concrete opportunities for each of these actors. However, in order to realize these opportunities, there are also a number of challenges that needs to be addressed. There are both technical challenges, such as data collection issues, interoperability, scalability and information security, and non-technical challenges such as business models, usability, privacy issues, and deployment. View Full-Text
Keywords: public transport; Internet of Things; digitalization; opportunities; challenges public transport; Internet of Things; digitalization; opportunities; challenges
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Davidsson, P.; Hajinasab, B.; Holmgren, J.; Jevinger, Å.; Persson, J.A. The Fourth Wave of Digitalization and Public Transport: Opportunities and Challenges. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1248.

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