Standards of Teacher Digital Competence in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Phase 1: Planning
2.1.1. Significance of the Study
2.1.2. Research Questions
- RQ1. What basic standards do studies establish for digital competence training?
- RQ2. What standards, models, or frameworks are used as references to implement teacher training in digital competence?
- RQ3. What are university professors’ training needs regarding digital competence?
- RQ4. What is the contribution of the study in this area?
- RQ5. What technologies are recommended for teacher training in digital competence?
2.1.3. Review Protocol
2.1.4. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
2.1.5. Search Strategies
2.1.6. Search Strings
2.1.7. Review Protocol Evaluation
2.2. Phase 2: Development
2.2.1. Selection of Primary Studies
2.2.2. Quality Assessment of the Studies
2.2.3. Data Extraction and Synthesis
2.3. Phase 3: Results Report
- Hepp et al.  claim that the standards will guide teacher performance since they integrate the knowledge and practices required for the development of their professional practice.
- Pozos y Tejada  point out that it is necessary to establish standards to examine teachers’ ICT competence to improve the digital profiling of teachers in Higher Education.
- Chou et al.  refer to UNESCO’s definition of standards (2008) where they are considered as a structure to identify and evaluate the elements that make up a competence.
- Yazon et al.  reveal that digital competence training standards allow a competence to be assessed and, based on it, enrich professional practice.
- Cabero-Almenara y Martínez  state that the improvement of teaching in Higher Education is related to the standards of digital competence since they allow assessing teachers’ competence in this area through the evaluation of their standards, without limiting university professors’ actions.
- Sjöberg y Lilja  state that the standards refer to the competencies that teachers must achieve and master at the end of their teaching training.
- Caena y Redecker  state that providing digital competence standards contributes to establishing teachers’ professional profiles in Higher Education.
- Colás-Bravo et al.  base their research on a sociocultural approach composed of four dimensions: dominance, preference, reintegration, and appropriation; they establish teacher digital competence (TDC) standards through empirical evidence coming from its implementation in students, which is why this study is not considered within the basic standards for teacher training (Table 7).
- Cabero-Almenara et al.  states that standards allow for recognizing the use and integration of technologies in teaching, identifying training needs, and proposing personalized training itineraries.
6. Limitations and Future Lines of Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Population (P)||Teacher digital competence standards.|
|Intervention (I)||Proposals for teacher training in digital competence.|
|Comparison (C)||No comparison is made, but the training proposals found will be categorized.|
|Results (O)||Digital competence standards, models, or frameworks.|
|Context (C)||Digital competence in university professors. International, national, and local scope.|
|Term||Synonyms or Related Terms in Literature|
|Framework (marco de referencia); digital competence framework (marco de competencia digital); model (model)|
|Digital literacy (alfabetización digital); digital skills (habilidades digitales)|
|Web of Science (WoS)||TS = ((“teacher training standards”) AND (“higher education”) AND (university) AND (“digital literacy”) OR (“digital competence”)) refined by: open access: (OPEN |
ACCESS) Timespan: 2015–2022
|Scopus||TITLE-ABS-KEY (“digital competence framework”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (standard*) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (framework*) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (“digital competence model”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (model*) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY (“digital literacy”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (“digital competence”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (“digital skills”) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY (“teachers’ training”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (university) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY (“higher edu-cation”) AND (LIMIT-TO (SRCTYPE, “j”) OR LIMIT-TO (SRCTYPE, “p”) OR LIMIT-TO (SRCTYPE, “k”) OR LIMIT-TO (SRCTYPE, “b”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (PUBSTAGE, “final”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (SUBJAREA, “SOCI”) OR LIMIT-TO (SUBJAREA, “COMP”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2022) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2021) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2020) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2019) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2018) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2017) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2016) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2015)) AND (LIMIT-TO (ACCESSTYPE(OA))) AND (LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, “English”) OR LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, “Spanish”))|
|Scielo||TS = ((“teacher training standards”) AND (“higher education”) AND (university) OR (“digital competence”)) refined by: LANGUAGES: (SPANISH OR ENGLISH) AND PUBLICATION YEARS: (2022 OR 2021 OR 2020 OR 2019 OR 2018 OR 2017 OR 2016 OR 2015)|
|Q1||Are the objectives related to teacher training in digital competence?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q2||Is the methodology understandable?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q3||Are the study population higher education professors?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q4||Is the type of study identified?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q5||Does the study establish a purpose?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q6||Does the study establish basic standards for teacher training in digital competence?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q7||Does the study refer to models or frameworks for teacher training in digital competence?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q8||Does the study establish the aspects that should be included in teacher digital competence training?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q9||Are data presented on teacher training assessment based on standards, models, or frameworks of digital competence?||Yes/No/Partial|
|Q10||Do the research guiding questions lead to solving the study problem?||Yes/No/Partial|
|||Chou, R., Valdés, A., & Sánchez, S||Training Program of Digital Competences on University Professors||2017||8|
|||Basantes-Andrade, A., Cabezas-González, M., Casillas-Martín, S., Naranjo-Toro, M., & Benavides-Piedra, A.||NANO-MOOCs to train university professors in digital competences||2022||9|
|||Pozos, K., & Tejada, J||Digital Competences in Higher Education Professors: Proficiency Levels and Training Needs||2018||9.5|
|||Prendes, M., Porlán, I.,|
& Sánchez, F
|Digital competence: a need for university teachers in the 21st century||2018||8.5|
|||Fernández-Márquez, E., Leiva-Olivencia, J., & López-Meneses, E.||Digital Competences on Higher Education Professors||2018||7|
|||Zempoalteca, B., Barragán, J., González, J., & Guzmán, T||ICT Training and digital competence in professors of public higher education institutions||2017||8|
|||Yazon, A., Ang-Manaig, K., Buama, C., & Tesoro, J||Digital literacy, digital competence, and research productivity of educators||2019||9|
|||Cabero-Almenara, J., & Martínez, A||Information and Communication Technologies and Initial Teachers Training: Models and Digital Competences||2019||9|
|||Colás-Bravo, P., Conde-Jiménez, J., & Reyes-de-Cózar, S||The development of the digital teaching competence from a sociocultural approach||2019||8.5|
|||Kullaslahti, J., Ruhalahti, S., & Brauer, S.||Professional development of digital competences: Standardized frameworks supporting evolving digital badging practices||2019||9|
|||Sjöberg, J., & Lilja, P||University teachers’ ambivalence about the digital transformation of higher education||2019||8.5|
|||Handley, F||Developing digital skills and literacies in UK higher education: Recent developments and a case study of the digital literacies framework at the University of Brighton, UK||2018||7|
|||Langset, I., Jacobsen, D., & Haugsbakken, H||Digital professional development: Towards a collaborative learning approach for taking higher education into the digitalized age||2018||8.5|
|||Hepp, K., Fernández, M., & García, J||Teacher training: Technology helping to develop an innovative and reflective professional profile||2015||9|
|||Caena, F., & Redecker, C||Aligning teacher competence frameworks to 21st-century challenges: The case for the European Digital Competence Framework for Educators (DIGCOMPEDU)||2019||8.5|
|||Mengual-Andrés, S., Roig-Vila, R., & Mira, J||Delphi study for the design and validation of a questionnaire about digital competences in higher education||2016||8.5|
|||Mirete, A. B., Maquilón, J. J., Mirete, L., & Rodríguez, R||Digital competence and university teachers’ conceptions about teaching. A structural causal model||2020||8.5|
|||Domingo-Coscollola, M., Bosco-Paniagua, A., Carrasco-Segovia, S., & Sánchez-Valero, J.-A.||Fostering teacher’s digital competence at university: The perception of students and teachers||2020||9|
|||Cabero-Almenara, J., Barroso-Osuna, J. M., Rodríguez-Gallego, M. R., & Palacios-Rodríguez, A. D. P.||Digital Competence for Educators. The case of Andalusian universities.||2021||8.5|
|||Rojas, V., Zeta, A., & Jiménez, R||Digital competencies in a Peruvian public university||2020||8|
|||Ruiz, A., Medina, M., Pérez, E., & Medina, A.||University teachers’ training: the Digital Competence||2020||9|
|||Viñoles-Cosentino, V., Esteve-Mon, F. M., Llopis-Nebot, M. Ángeles, & Adell-Segura, J.||Validation of a Platform for Formative Assessment of Teacher Digital Competence in Times of COVID-19||2021||8.5|
|||Cabero-Almenara, J., Barroso-Osuna, J., Palacios-Rodríguez, A. & Llorente-Cejudo, C.||Digital competency frames for university teachers: Evaluation through the expert competence coefficient||2020||8.5|
|||Pérez, L., Jordano, M., & Martín-Cuadrado, A.||NOOCs for the development of university teachers’ digital competences. A pilot experience by the UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia)||2017||8.5|
|||Roa, K., Rojas, C., González, L., & Ortiz, E.||Teacher 4.0: A digital training proposal to strengthen the teaching and learning process||2021||9.5|
|||Barragán, R., Llorente, C., Aguilar, S., & Benítez, R.||Initial self-perception and level of digital competence of university teaching staff||2022||8|
|Concept Proposal (CP)||The authors propose a concept, process, or theory; there is neither feasibility demonstration nor evaluation.|
|Proof of concept (PC)||The authors demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.|
|Quantification (Q)||The authors quantify a variable concerning a given approach.|
|Comparison (C)||The authors determine quantitative differences between the properties of a proposal and at least one alternative.|
|Conditional Comparison (CC)||The authors determine quantitative differences between the properties of a proposal and at least one alternative in at least two conditions. (Proposal A is better than proposal B in condition C1, but the reverse is true in condition C2).|
|Review (R)||The authors present a summary of the literature.|
|Post-facto (PF)||The authors review the existing data and decide on a correlation between the two dimensions.|
|Dimension of Competence||Basic Training Standards in Digital Competence||Study|
|Technological||Understands and effectively uses new technologies (ICT) in the teaching and research work.|
Uses technological tools to produce and disseminate knowledge.
Uses content management tools for learning and collaborative work.
|Professional Commitment||Uses different digital channels systematically to improve communication with students, parents, and colleagues (emails, blogs, the school website, apps).|
Uses digital technologies to work together with colleagues inside and outside of the educational institution.
Actively develops digital teaching skills.
Participates in online training opportunities (online courses, MOOC, webinars).
|Digital Resources||Uses different Internet sites and search strategies to find and select a variety of different digital resources.|
Creates his own digital resources and modifies the existing ones according to his needs.
Effectively protects sensitive content (exams, student grades, personal data).
|Teaching–learning||Carefully considers how, when, and why to use digital technologies in class, to ensure their use with added value.|
Monitors the students’ activities and interactions in collaborative online settings.
When students work in groups or teams, they use digital technologies to acquire and document evidence.
Uses digital technologies to enable students to plan, document, and monitor their learning (questionnaires for self-assessment, e-Portfolios for documentation and display, online journals/blogs for reflection).
|Learning assessment||Uses digital assessment formats to monitor student progress.|
Analyzes all available data to timely identify students who need additional support.
|Empowerment of students||When creating digital assignments for students, considers and addresses potential digital issues (access to digital devices and resources; interoperability and conversion problems; lack of digital skills).|
Uses digital technologies to offer students personalized learning.
Uses digital technologies for students to actively participate in class.
|Facilitates the student’s digital competence||Teaches students how to assess the reliability of information and identify misinformation and bias.|
Sets up assignments, which require students to use digital media to communicate and collaborate with each other or with an external audience.
Sets up assignments, which require students to create digital content (videos, audios, photos, digital presentations, blogs, wikis).
Teaches students how to behave safely and responsibly online.
Encourages students to use digital technologies creatively to solve specific problems, and overcome obstacles or challenges that arise in the learning process.
|Planning and design of learning experiences in face-to-face and/or virtual settings||Understands the features, languages, and basic functioning of the most common digital tools to integrate them into face-to-face learning situations supported by ICTIdentifies the didactic possibilities of basic digital tools and existing teaching materials.|
Designs mechanisms to identify students’ learning needs using digital tools or materials.
Selects the most appropriate digital tools for their strategic integration in the design of face-to-face learning experiences, according to the student’s learning goals.
Designs face-to-face learning experiences enriched with ICT searching for the most appropriate didactic methodology(s) to guide students’ learning.
|Development and management of face-to-face and/or online collaborative learning experiences||Manages creative learning experiences in face-to-face settings with the support of basic digital tools to motivate and guide student learning.|
Uses the current teaching–learning methodologies to integrate the basic digital tools at the appropriate moments of the didactic act.
Encourages communication and collaborative work through basic digital communication and digital collaboration tools.
Manages research projects and student work with the support of basic digital tools.
|Orientation, guidance, and evaluation of students’ knowledge construction processes in face-to-face and/or virtual settings||Analyzes the learning needs, prior knowledge, and motivations of students with the support of digital tools or materials.|
Continuously assesses the learning and knowledge construction processes of students in face-to-face learning settings mediated by ICT.
Applies and adjusts the necessary support to guide learning with ICT in face-to-face learning settings.
Uses digital tools to build instruments for the evaluation and self-assessment of students’ learning.
Uses the virtual platforms to manage institutional academic content to administer the course evaluation system and monitor students’ learning.
|Management of the professional growth and development with the support of ICT||Uses ICT, especially in the acquisition of complementary knowledge about subjects and pedagogy-didactics, which contribute to professional development.|
Uses the basic technological tools of academic management in the usual professional fields to support professional performance.
Participates in proposals for basic training in/with CT to improve the usual professional activity.
Values the importance and need for lifelong learning in various fields and ICT to improve the professional development.
|Research, development, and pedagogical innovation with ICT and for the use of ICT in education||Consults relevant information through basic digital tools for the development of daily professional activities of teaching, research, and management.|
Reflects on practice, on the benefits of using basic digital tools in face-to-face educational experiences.
Participates in research projects with the support of basic digital tools.
|Diversity, ethics, and responsible use of ICT in teaching professional performance||Understands the implications and potential risks of digital tools in social segregation and exclusion.|
Acts with ethical criteria for the responsible integration of ICT in the curriculum and student learning activities.
Guarantees equitable access to the use of ICT for students during face-to-face learning experiences, especially in collaborative activities Provides experiences and digital learning materials considering the cultural and linguistic diversity of students.
|Environment, health, and occupational safety with the use of ICT in the pedagogical teaching profession||Manages adequately stress and emotions in the acquisition of new knowledge and development of competencies around ICT in daily practice.|
Uses ICT properly together with the corresponding installation and use manuals. Knows the implications of the use of technologies in education and their possibilities to support the curricular area.
Plans and designs ICT learning settings for curriculum development.
Uses ICT in the preparation of teaching materials to support pedagogical practices to improve future job performance.
Implements learning experiences with the use of ICT to teach the curriculum.
Evaluates technological resources to incorporate them into pedagogical practices.
Evaluates the results obtained in the design, implementation, and use of technology to improve learning and development of cognitive skills.
Supports teaching and learning processes through virtual settings.
|Social, ethical, and legal||Learns about aspects related to the impact and role of ICT in the way of understanding and promoting inclusion in the Knowledge Society:|
Identifies and understands ethical and legal aspects associated with digital information and communications through data networks (privacy, software licenses, intellectual property, information, and communications security).
|Technical–technological||Knows the concepts and basic functions associated with ICT and the use of personal computers.|
Uses productivity tools (Word Processor, Spreadsheet, presenter) to generate various types of documents.
Knows concepts and uses tools of the Internet, Web, and synchronous and asynchronous communication resources, to access and disseminate information and establish remote communications.
|Management||Uses technologies to support administrative-teaching tasks.|
Uses technologies to support the administrative tasks of the institution.
|Professional development||Develops skills to reflectively incorporate technologies into the teaching practice.|
Uses technologies for communication and collaboration with peers and the educational community in general in pursuit of exchanging reflections, experiences, and products that contribute to the teaching performance.
|Pedagogical||Explorer: identifies new strategies and methodologies mediated by ICT, as a tool for their professional performance.|
Integrative: proposes projects and learning strategies with the use of ICT to enhance student learning.
Innovative: leads meaningful experiences that involve differentiated learning settings according to the needs and interests of their own and of the students
|Investigative||Explorer: uses ICT to record and monitor what is being observed from a teacher and student perspective in practice and context.|
Integrator: leads his own research projects and with his students.
Innovative: builds innovative educational strategies that include the collective generation of knowledge.
|Technological||Explorer: recognizes a wide spectrum of technological tools and some ways to integrate them into educational practice.|
Integrator: uses various technological tools in educational processes, according to their role, training area, level, and working context.
Innovative: applies the knowledge of a wide variety of technologies in the design of innovative learning settings and proposes solutions to problems identified in the context.
|Management||Explorer: organizes activities related to professional work with the use of ICT.|
Integrator: integrates ICT in processes of dynamization of the directive, academic, administrative, and community management of the institution.
Innovative: proposes and leads actions to optimize integrated processes of school management.
|Communicative||Explorer: uses various channels and languages of ICT to communicate with the educational community. |
Integrator: develops collaborative work strategies in the school context from the participation in networks and communities with the use of ICT.
Innovative: participates in communities and publishes textual productions in various virtual spaces and through multiple digital media, using the languages that ICT enable.
|Standards, Models, or Frames in DC||Area of Competence||Levels||Study|
|UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers |
|ICT National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers NETS-T|
|Model for teacher digital competence Krumsvik (2009)||[28,33]|
|TPACK model (2009)||[13,28,31,34,35,37]|
|JISC’S Digital literacy framework|
|ICT Competence Model for teaching in Spanish Public Universities, Prendes (2010)||[11,13]|
|Model for digital competence integration in university teaching|
|UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers|
|ALA-MUTKA digital competence model (2011)|||
|Common Digital Competence Framework for Teachers INTEF (2013)||[11,26]|
|European Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (DigComp) (2013)||[13,27,28,29,30,32,35,36,40,46]|
|Model of the Ministry of National Education of Colombia MEN|
|Framework for 21st Century Learning ACT21s|
|Model of the Ministry of Education of the Government of Catalonia (DEGC)|
|European Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (DigComp 2.0)|
|Common Digital Competence Framework for Teachers INTEF (2017)||[10,13,28,29,38,41,43]|
|Digital Competence Framework for Educators DigCompEdu (2017)||[29,30,35,39,42,43]|
|Teacher digital competence model for university professors|
|Type of Contribution||Study||It Is Based on Existing Referents||Objective||Detail|
|TP||||UNESCO (2008)||Promote changes in the teaching practice of the university professor through a technological preparation program.||The training program proposal has three modules:|
|Know and manage technically and technologically the instruments of the media galaxy, until the transformation of their educational practices.||The proposal for the ICT teacher training program is based on the development of four competency dimensions through three phases:|
|||INTEF (2017)||Improve digital competence of university teachers through nano-MOOCs.||The training proposal is based on the PACIE instructional design to create courses in a nano-MOOC format in the following areas of competence:|
|||DigCompEdu||Choose a teacher digital competence (TDC) framework as the axis for the design, production, and evaluation of t-MOOCs.||The proposal focuses on using the DigCompEdu model as a reference for teacher training through courses in t-MOOC format.|
|||DigComp 2.0||Improve university teaching staff training in the area of information on digital competence.||Teacher training in digital competence is based on open and online courses (NOOC) in the area of information with three levels of performance (basic, intermediate, and advanced):|
|||Prendes (2018) y MEN||Identify the level of digital competence and generate a training plan based on the needs.||The training plan is based on micro courses in the areas of competence from the MEN model.|
|||DigComp||Identify the level of digital competence in university professors and propose a training plan through the t-MOOC architecture.||The training proposal is based on the DigComp model areas of competence, under the t-MOOC architecture.|
|||INTEF (2017)||Train university teaching staff in the knowledge, mastery, and projection of digital competence for their own professional development and the improvement of teaching–learning processes.||The training proposal is based on the development of resources (mini videos) so that university professors have a greater understanding and encourage interaction and communication in the teaching–learning process. It focuses on three dimensions of digital competence:|
|||DigCompEdu||Validate the design of a platform for self-assessment and training in TDC.||The self-assessment platform in digital competence allows teachers to know or identify their level of competence based on the DigCompEdu dimensions and derived from this, teachers can select their training according to their need and level of expertise.|
|Develop skills, techniques, attitudes, and habits in educators, in a way that the correct use of technological tools is evidenced through the success achieved in the training process.||The proposal for the training of educators includes the following dimensions of competence:|
|S||||DigCompEdu (2017)||Apply competency frameworks to improve and innovate teacher education programs through the potential of open digital badges.||The TDC training strategy is based on the development of the six phases of the DigCompEdu model and the awarding of badges according to the achievement of these objectives:|
|M||||None||Identify current competencies and establish-prioritize training needs.||The model to develop digital competence in university professors considers the following competencies:|
|Propose a model for TDC development based on a sociocultural approach.||This model is developed through four constructs:|
|||Prendes (2010)||Approach university professors for ICT integration into teaching coherently through an original model.||This model is based on five dimensions:|
|||None||Present a model with a collaborative learning approach (CLA) for the professional development of digital competences.||The model proposed by the authors is developed in four steps:|
|AI||||TPACK (2009)||Develop an ad hoc instrument to assess the level of digital competence in teachers.||This evaluation instrument deals with three dimensions:|
|||DigCompEdu||Identify the level of digital competence in university teaching staff and see if there are significant differences between self-perception before and after taking the questionnaire.||The level of digital competence in teachers is evaluated according to the DigCompEdu Check-In instrument adapted to the Spanish context.|
|Design and validate a questionnaire developed based on various digital competence standards for Higher Education.||The proposed questionnaire has the following dimensions:|
|CF||||DigCompEdu (2017)||Update the competence profile according to the challenges of the 21st century through a digital competence framework.||The DigCompEdu framework is sufficiently generic and can be applied in different educational settings, based on this framework the authors describe the creation of a digital competence framework considering the following aspects:|
|[10,44]||Nano-MOOC o NOOC||Open access online courses. Teachers select the training course according to their training needs. Each course lasts 180 min.|
|||cMOOC||Open access online courses. Teachers select the training course according to their training needs.|
|||Mini videos||Use of mini videos for a better understanding of specific topics such as interaction and communication resources.|
|||The authors recommend preparing techno-pedagogical handbook (TH) documents, so the teacher can check when required.||Autonomous online or offline.|
|||A platform for self-assessment and institutional digital competence training.||It offers free options for online courses on the site according to the results obtained from the digital competence level self-assessment.|
|[43,46]||t-MOOC||Hybrid MOOC that adapts the characteristics of the xMOOC and cMOOC and integrates progressive development of tasks or activities for the student as the course progresses. The tasks can be developed individually or collaboratively among their peers.|
|||Micro-courses||Structured course under the micro-course concept, by level, and by competence; it is based on the challenge-based learning pedagogical approach.|
|||Use of Web 2.0 tools to develop lifelong learning.||Open Access Virtual Learning Environment. The training selection is according to teachers’ needs.|
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Basantes-Andrade, A.; Casillas-Martín, S.; Cabezas-González, M.; Naranjo-Toro, M.; Guerra-Reyes, F. Standards of Teacher Digital Competence in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113983
Basantes-Andrade A, Casillas-Martín S, Cabezas-González M, Naranjo-Toro M, Guerra-Reyes F. Standards of Teacher Digital Competence in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability. 2022; 14(21):13983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113983Chicago/Turabian Style
Basantes-Andrade, Andrea, Sonia Casillas-Martín, Marcos Cabezas-González, Miguel Naranjo-Toro, and Frank Guerra-Reyes. 2022. "Standards of Teacher Digital Competence in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review" Sustainability 14, no. 21: 13983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113983