Next Article in Journal
The Environmental Impact of Lowering Dietary Crude Protein in Finishing Pig Diets—The Effect on Ammonia, Odour and Slurry Production
Previous Article in Journal
Open Data as a Condition for Smart Application Development: Assessing Access to Hospitals in Croatian Cities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Temperature on the Electrical and Thermal Behaviour of a Photovoltaic/Thermal System Cooled Using SiC Nanofluid: An Experimental and Comparison Study
 
 
Article

Modified Nano-Fe2O3-Paraffin Wax for Efficient Photovoltaic/Thermal System in Severe Weather Conditions

1
Energy and Renewable Energies Technology Center, University of Technology, Baghdad 10066, Iraq
2
Faculty of Engineering, Sohar University, P.O. Box 44, Sohar PCI 311, Oman
3
Engineering Department, American University of Iraq, Sulaimani 46001, Iraq
4
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Al-Ameed, Karbala 56001, Iraq
6
Chemical and Water Desalination Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 26666, United Arab Emirates
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sergio Nardini
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12015; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912015
Received: 28 July 2022 / Revised: 12 August 2022 / Accepted: 12 August 2022 / Published: 23 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies Applied to Renewable Energy)
The development of modern photovoltaic thermal systems (PV/T) is one of the most important steps in the application of using solar energy to produce both electricity and heat. Studies have shown that a system consisting of a heat-collecting tank the is most efficient system, in which the phase change materials (PCMs) are mixed with nanoparticles inside the system that are cooled by a cooling fluid (preferably a nanofluid). The PCMs have a high capacity to store energy in the form of latent heat. Nanoparticles are added to PCMs to treat and improve the low thermal conductivity of these materials. In this experimental study, nano-iron oxide III (Fe2O3) was added to paraffin wax in multiple mass fractions to evaluate the thermophysical changes that can be occur on the wax properties. Four samples of paraffin–nano-Fe2O3 were prepared with mass fractions of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, and their thermophysical properties were compared with pure paraffin (without nano additives). The results from this study showed that adding nano-Fe2O3 at any mass fraction increases the viscosity and density of the product. Thermal conductivity is improved by adding nano-Fe2O3 to paraffin wax by 10.04%, 57.14%, 76.19%, and 78.57% when adding mass fractions of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. Stability tests showed that the prepared samples have excellent thermal stability (especially for 0.5% and 1% added nano-Fe2O3) to acceptable level of stability when adding 3% of nano-Fe2O3. The nano-Fe2O3 paraffin PV/T system was tested outdoors to ensure its ability to operate in the harshest weather conditions of Baghdad city. The current experimental results indicated clear evidence of the success of the examined nano-PCM. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic thermal; nano-Fe2O3; mass fraction; thermal conductivity; stability photovoltaic thermal; nano-Fe2O3; mass fraction; thermal conductivity; stability
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaichan, M.T.; Mahdi, M.T.; Kazem, H.A.; Al-Waeli, A.H.A.; Fayad, M.A.; Al-Amiery, A.A.; Isahak, W.N.R.W.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Takriff, M.S. Modified Nano-Fe2O3-Paraffin Wax for Efficient Photovoltaic/Thermal System in Severe Weather Conditions. Sustainability 2022, 14, 12015. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912015

AMA Style

Chaichan MT, Mahdi MT, Kazem HA, Al-Waeli AHA, Fayad MA, Al-Amiery AA, Isahak WNRW, Kadhum AAH, Takriff MS. Modified Nano-Fe2O3-Paraffin Wax for Efficient Photovoltaic/Thermal System in Severe Weather Conditions. Sustainability. 2022; 14(19):12015. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaichan, Miqdam T., Maytham T. Mahdi, Hussein A. Kazem, Ali H. A. Al-Waeli, Mohammed A. Fayad, Ahmed A. Al-Amiery, Wan Nor Roslam Wan Isahak, Abdul Amir H. Kadhum, and Mohd S. Takriff. 2022. "Modified Nano-Fe2O3-Paraffin Wax for Efficient Photovoltaic/Thermal System in Severe Weather Conditions" Sustainability 14, no. 19: 12015. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912015

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop