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Article

Influence of Printing Technique and Printing Conditions on Prints Recycling Efficiency and Effluents Quality

1
Faculty of Graphic Arts, University of Zagreb, Getaldićeva 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Croatian Academy of Engineering, Kovačićeva 28, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Petronela Nechita, Rodica Mihaela Dinicǎ and Bianca Furdui
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010335
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 23 December 2021 / Accepted: 27 December 2021 / Published: 29 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Biomass Waste Valorization)
The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the conventional offset printing technique and digital electrophotography printing with liquid toner (LEP) on some optical properties of recycled fibres. A series of LEP prints was made with the variation of the negative voltage of the developing drum (−200 V, −280 V, −350 V, and −430 V) after calibration of the machine and achieving standard densitometry values. Besides deinkability aspects, the quality of wastewater effluents after process of prints recycling was observed in order to make a conclusion regarding how different printing techniques, conditions in printing process, and different types of inks can affect the wastewater effluents. Results of image analysis showed that by increasing the negative voltage of developing drum in LEP printing technique, the formation of large ink particles on handsheet from recycled pulp increases. Depending on the size of the negative voltage of the developing drum, under the same experimental conditions, handsheets made from LEP recycled fibres have lower whiteness gain, brightness gain, and ΔERIC of handsheets compared to those made from the offset prints. In addition, a certain correlation was found between IEERIC (ink elimination), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) of wastewater effluents after recycling of LEP prints and offset prints as well. Organic water pollution parameters (COD and TOC) showed higher values in wastewater after recycling of offset prints compared to recycling of LEP prints. View Full-Text
Keywords: paper recycling; LEP technology; developing drum; offset printing; optical properties; wastewater paper recycling; LEP technology; developing drum; offset printing; optical properties; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vukoje, M.; Bolanča Mirković, I.; Bolanča, Z. Influence of Printing Technique and Printing Conditions on Prints Recycling Efficiency and Effluents Quality. Sustainability 2022, 14, 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010335

AMA Style

Vukoje M, Bolanča Mirković I, Bolanča Z. Influence of Printing Technique and Printing Conditions on Prints Recycling Efficiency and Effluents Quality. Sustainability. 2022; 14(1):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vukoje, Marina, Ivana Bolanča Mirković, and Zdenka Bolanča. 2022. "Influence of Printing Technique and Printing Conditions on Prints Recycling Efficiency and Effluents Quality" Sustainability 14, no. 1: 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010335

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