Next Article in Journal
Increasing University Competitiveness through Assessment of Green Content in Curriculum and Eco-Labeling in Higher Education
Previous Article in Journal
Applying a Relationally and Socially Embedded Decision Framework to Solar Photovoltaic Adoption: A Conceptual Exploration
Article

How to Achieve Positive Energy Districts for Sustainable Cities: A Proposed Calculation Methodology

1
Energy Division, CARTIF Technology Centre, 47151 Boecillo, Spain
2
Smart Cities Department, Demir Enerji, Kadikoy/Istanbul 34718, Turkey
3
TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48160 Derio, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020710
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 25 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart City and Communities Roadmap)
In this paper, a methodology for calculating the energy balance at the district level and energy performance of those districts aspiring to become a Positive Energy District (PED) is proposed. PEDs are understood as districts that achieve a positive energy balance on an annual basis by means of exporting more energy than is consumed within their limits. The main issue to standardize the concept, besides which characteristics should be considered, is that current standards to calculate an energy balance are not applied at the district level. This paper reviews the current standards and adapts them to propose an energy balance calculation methodology. Calculation of an energy balance at the district level is complex since it includes several parameters, such as which loads (or elements) should be included, which renewable energy technologies should be considered on-site production, and which primary energy factors should be used. The proposed methodology is thought to help cities at the design stage of a district and to evaluate its annual energy balance. The methodology is performed in eight steps, and all the needed assumptions that affect the calculation of the annual energy balance are discussed in each step. View Full-Text
Keywords: positive energy districts; smart cities; primary energy assessment positive energy districts; smart cities; primary energy assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gabaldón Moreno, A.; Vélez, F.; Alpagut, B.; Hernández, P.; Sanz Montalvillo, C. How to Achieve Positive Energy Districts for Sustainable Cities: A Proposed Calculation Methodology. Sustainability 2021, 13, 710. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020710

AMA Style

Gabaldón Moreno A, Vélez F, Alpagut B, Hernández P, Sanz Montalvillo C. How to Achieve Positive Energy Districts for Sustainable Cities: A Proposed Calculation Methodology. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):710. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gabaldón Moreno, Andrea, Fredy Vélez, Beril Alpagut, Patxi Hernández, and Cecilia Sanz Montalvillo. 2021. "How to Achieve Positive Energy Districts for Sustainable Cities: A Proposed Calculation Methodology" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 710. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020710

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop