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Article

Modeling and Prioritizing Interventions Using Pollution Hotspots for Reducing Nutrients, Atrazine and E. coli Concentrations in a Watershed

1
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0726, USA
2
Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
3
U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, NE 68933, USA
4
Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
5
IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education, Core of Hydrology and Water Resources, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010103
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
Excess nutrients and herbicides remain two major causes of waterbody impairment globally. In an attempt to better understand pollutant sources in the Big Sandy Creek Watershed (BSCW) and the prospects for successful remediation, a program was initiated to assist agricultural producers with the implementation of best management practices (BMPs). The objectives were to (1) simulate BMPs within hotspots to determine reductions in pollutant loads and (2) to determine if water-quality standards are met at the watershed outlet. Regression-based load estimator (LOADEST) was used for determining sediment, nutrient and atrazine loads, while artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for determining E. coli concentrations. With respect to reducing sediment, total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads at hotspots with individual BMPs, implementing grassed waterways resulted in average reductions of 97%, 53% and 65% respectively if implemented all over the hotspots. Although reducing atrazine application rate by 50% in all hotspots was the most effective BMP for reducing atrazine concentrations (21%) at the gauging station 06883940, this reduction was still six times higher than the target concentration. Similarly, with grassed waterways established in all hotspots, the 64% reduction in E. coli concentration was not enough to meet the target at the gauging station. With scaled-down acreage based on the proposed implementation plan, filter strip led to more pollutant reductions at the targeted hotspots. Overall, a combination of filter strip, grassed waterway and atrazine rate reduction will most likely yield measureable improvement both in the hotspots (>20% reduction in sediment, total nitrogen and total phosphorus pollution) and at the gauging station. Despite the model’s uncertainties, the results showed a possibility of using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effectiveness of various BMPs in agricultural watersheds. View Full-Text
Keywords: best management practices; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); nutrients; E. coli; atrazine; Big Sandy Creek Watershed (BSCW) best management practices; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); nutrients; E. coli; atrazine; Big Sandy Creek Watershed (BSCW)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abimbola, O.; Mittelstet, A.; Messer, T.; Berry, E.; van Griensven, A. Modeling and Prioritizing Interventions Using Pollution Hotspots for Reducing Nutrients, Atrazine and E. coli Concentrations in a Watershed. Sustainability 2021, 13, 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010103

AMA Style

Abimbola O, Mittelstet A, Messer T, Berry E, van Griensven A. Modeling and Prioritizing Interventions Using Pollution Hotspots for Reducing Nutrients, Atrazine and E. coli Concentrations in a Watershed. Sustainability. 2021; 13(1):103. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abimbola, Olufemi, Aaron Mittelstet, Tiffany Messer, Elaine Berry, and Ann van Griensven. 2021. "Modeling and Prioritizing Interventions Using Pollution Hotspots for Reducing Nutrients, Atrazine and E. coli Concentrations in a Watershed" Sustainability 13, no. 1: 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010103

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