3.1. Discussion: Determining Local Territory Indicators and Using a GIS
One of the biggest challenges for data model creation is in choosing the appropriate indicators for analysing local territories. There are two principle ways to solve this “indicators” issue. One method to analyse an area is to use different types of indicators that describe the area in terms of the function, structure and location [25
]. Using these three large groups would require extensive analysis, including historical, financial, social, ecological and climate data [26
]. By covering the indicators of the territory, it is possible for the local community, in cooperation with the municipality, to develop a long-term strategy for the development of the village or neighbourhood territory. One of the important indicators is sociability. The World Health Organization, along with the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s Healthy People 2020 initiative, identified social support and good social relations as key determinants of health and well-being. The Project for Public spaces showed how to work with different places [27
]. To deal with this challenge, the most important indicators group for the local community are sociability; uses and activities; comfort and image; and access and linkages, which form the subgroups developed by the authors (see Figure 5
Another method to analyse local territories is to pay special attention to analysing the historical development of the local territory, to collect its traditions and find a sustainable way for the future to integrate the traditions and culture with developing the territory. This characteristic of local territory may require a unique approach and a focus on different indicators that play roles for the image and attractiveness of the local territory [29
]. Regarding the conducted expert interviews, we developed six indicator groups (Table 1
One of groups “specific sea resources (in the water and inland)” is defined as a horizontal factor group that is part of the sub-factors and shown in Table 1
marked with SA.
Economic factors impact the design of the economic development of the village or neighbourhood, and this requires information about the employment, wages, salaries, real estate in the local territory, migration, and entrepreneurship in the local territory (village or neighbourhood) and in the municipality (region). These economic factors will provide the main information regarding the planning of the territory development and analysis of the economic health in the local territory and community. By using this information, the community and local government can analyse the economic activities inside the local territory and the economical manner of the local inhabitants. Economic factors are known to be in synergy with social factors, including life quality and satisfaction in the family and in the society (community), and they reflect the environment of the local territory as well.
Social factors present the interrelatedness of the social roles, behaviours and actions of the local community, providing detailed information regarding the social structures in the local territory to analyse the age, nationality and education. This information identifies the analytical categories and relationships between them, i.e., the needs of the local community from the age and ethnographical view.
Environmental factors play important roles in the local territory through infrastructure development (public, municipal and private) by indicating the structure and housing information. The environmental factors are closely linked to the social factors. The factors of the environmental give important information regarding the minimum needs for stays in a village or neighbourhood including:
the drinking water and sewers;
the roads and their quality;
the energy saving possibilities; and
the ecological situation.
Cultural factors include the traditions, attitudes, beliefs, values and self-definitions of the local community, which are important in territory planning and can show information regarding the free time and leisure activities in the territory and nearby territories. To collect this information, there are no optimal parameters regarding how far from the village or neighbourhood the free time activities should be located, but this parameter must be an attribute.
Government service basket factors include information on what services can be obtained directly from the government in the developing territory and how far it is to obtain services for health, shopping and local and regional centres. These factors also include restrictions on territory development and protection zones.
Specific sea resources (in the water and inland) must be analysed to collect and monitor information that is based on the smart specialization of coastal areas. It is important to analyse the resources that are directly connected to the sea in the water and those inland. This will not be a separate indicator (not included in the Table 1
); however, certain indicators must be specifically analysed regarding the differences of coastal local territories (marked with SA in the lower table).
There is an issue regarding the interdisciplinary harmonized indicator classifications [30
]. Every stakeholder attempts to use their own indicators, although there are many developed Ecosystem Services (ES) indicator models. In future research, we will attempt to harmonize the local level indicators with ES indicators.
3.2. Methods for Collecting the Values for Indicators and Its Data Sources
For analysing local territories, methods that produce accurate and precise data should be chosen. These data must cover the largest part of the territory and most of the inhabitants. Triangulation involves the use of different methods and sources to check the integrity of, or extend, the inferences drawn from the data. Triangulation has been widely adopted and developed as a concept by qualitative researchers as a means of investigating the ‘convergence’ of both data and the conclusions derived from them [31
]. This technique is often cited as one of the central methods of ‘validating’ qualitative research evidence.
The methods for collecting of the data:
mapping of the geospatial data—geodetical surveying on the field, use the geospatial databases to collect the environmental data;
survey—use mutual and written methods, use social forms, also possibly use the GIS platform;
interview—collect the cultural information and needs for inhibitors;
observations—collect information on the habits and behaviours; and
analyse documents—collect information on the services and regulations of the government, the decisions of the government and submissions.
Data sources for the information vary from maps to databases (see Figure 6
In this respect, in the village or neighbourhood planning, the indicators mainly focus on the local needs and people’s lives by using the hard data and integrating it in the GIS tools. In village planning, a GIS is the tool to collect, analyse and visualize the results. Spatial analysis results from the GIS give the tasks for the future to show what the village needs and what is possible to do. Combining the different geospatial and analytical layers is possible (see Figure 6
). For example, for analysis of the population, to show the needs and analyse the possibilities in the village or surrounding area is possible. The GIS tool can help organize the life in villages.
3.3. Methods for Analyzing and Visualizing Indicators
There is a possibility to use many of the methods to analyse the village or neighbourhood life indicators. There are two primary important categories: statistical and/or logical methods. For visualizing, it is possible to use combinations of the analytical data and cartographical maps, or to use the GIS and statistical and/or logical methods for describing, illustrating, reducing, summarizing and evaluating the data [32
]. Based on the data, these methods allow us to draw inductive conclusions and separate the signal (the phenomenon of interest) from the noise (statistical fluctuations or subjective bias) in the data. A GIS gives a connection with the place and possibilities to visualize the results with the geographical features to provide interactions with different data layers.
Considering the discussion part of this present research, we designed the information system architecture of the indicator analysing tool (Figure 7
According to Figure 7
, the results of the indicator analysis tool must show the main possibilities for communications, needs and possibilities to develop the village or neighbourhood territory. The tool will allow for understanding and analysis of the economic, environmental, social, service and cultural factors, as well as specific sea resources (in the water and inland), including the scenarios and forecast approach. The results can also indicate threats to sociality and economical possibilities, as well as possibilities for using the strengths of the local community. In future research regarding the village or neighbourhood indicator analysis tool, more detailed characteristics of indicators and GIS layers will be developed. The results must be dynamical and open to changes in adapting to circumstances.