As motor design is key to the development of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs), it has recently become the subject of considerable interest. Interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors offer advantages such as high torque density and high efficiency, benefiting from both permanent magnet (PM) torque and reluctance torque. However an obvious disadvantage of IPM motors is that operation at high speed involves difficulties in achieving the required flux-weakening capability and low vibration. This study focuses on optimizing the flux-weakening performance and reducing the vibration of an IPM motor for EVs. Firstly, flux-weakening capability, cogging torque, torque ripple, and radical vibration force are analyzed based on the mathematical model. Secondly, three kinds of motors are optimized by the genetic algorithm and analyzed, providing visible insights into the contribution of different rotor structures to the torque characteristics, efficiency, and extended speed range. Thirdly, a slotted rotor configuration is proposed to reduce the torque ripple and radical vibration force. The flux density distributions are discussed, explaining the principle that motors with slotted rotors and stator skew slots have smaller torque ripple and radical vibration force. Lastly, the design and optimization results have been validated against experiments.
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