Next Issue
Volume 11, September
Previous Issue
Volume 11, March
 
 

Clin. Pract., Volume 11, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Facing the frequent clinical question of the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic lesions can still be difficult. The achievement of a tissue-biopsy-based diagnosis is the most important starting point. The biopsy must be interpreted in the context of the entire complexity of symptoms and paraclinical features of a patient, requiring a dialogue between different experts. Although the first insight into the presenting case could suggest malignancy, the surgical biopsy unexpectedly showed changes that suggested granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Additional renal biopsy, performed due to abnormal biochemical parameters indicating a possible kidney affection, was consistent with pauci-immune ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. The case illustrates a model of the multidisciplinary approach to establish the undisputable diagnosis and initiate the relevant treatment without delay. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese-Translated Version of the Mini Sarcopenia Risk Assessment (MSRA) Questionnaire in Cancer Patients
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 395-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020054 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Background and Aims: This study sought (i) to adapt cross-culturally the Brazilian Portuguese-translated version of the MSRA questionnaire, (ii) to estimate the prevalence of risk of sarcopenia, and (iii) to correlate the MSRA Portuguese version with CC in hospitalized cancer patients. Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: This study sought (i) to adapt cross-culturally the Brazilian Portuguese-translated version of the MSRA questionnaire, (ii) to estimate the prevalence of risk of sarcopenia, and (iii) to correlate the MSRA Portuguese version with CC in hospitalized cancer patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study developed at the hospital in the year 2018. After being translated and adapted to the Portuguese language, the questionnaire was applied and associated with the measurement of calf circumference (CC) to verify its validity. Results: Of the 45 patients, 71.1% presented significant or severe body weight loss, and 55.5% indicated muscle mass loss (CC < 31 cm). From the MSRA of seven and five items, 91.1 and 84.5% of the patients, respectively, presented risk for sarcopenia. Among those at risk for sarcopenia, more than 60% were aged <70 years, >80% were hospitalized in the last year, more than 40% could not walk > 1000 m, >40% did not eat regularly, and >80% lost >2 kg in the last year. CC was correlated with MSRA of five items (r = 0.46, p = 0.001) and seven items (r = 0.53, p = 0.0002). Furthermore, both versions of the MSRA (seven and five items) presented strong agreement and high reliability. Conclusions: The MSRA full and short version was adapted for a Brazilian Portuguese-translated version and showed strong agreement and high reliability to identify the risk for sarcopenia in hospitalized cancer patients. Therefore, this questionnaire can be used as part of nutritional assessment protocols in order to enable early screening of the risk for sarcopenia Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association of a Self-Paid Medically Supervised Weight Management Program with Reversal of Obesity-Associated Impaired Fasting Glucose
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 386-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020053 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Aims: The progression of prediabetes to T2DM can be delayed through diet modification and weight management. However, the intensive lifestyle program is often not covered by medical insurance. This retrospective analysis evaluates the association of a patient self-paid weight management program on an [...] Read more.
Aims: The progression of prediabetes to T2DM can be delayed through diet modification and weight management. However, the intensive lifestyle program is often not covered by medical insurance. This retrospective analysis evaluates the association of a patient self-paid weight management program on an improvement of blood sugar in overweight and obese patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Methods: The medical records of 4634 patients who participated in the self-pay UCLA Weight Management Program were reviewed and 2572 patients met the criteria for this retrospective analysis to examine whether this program was associated with the reversal of IFG over 3 months among 1396 patients with normal fasting glucose (NFG) and 1176 with IFG. Results: The patients with IFG lost comparable amounts of weight (10.5 ± 1.3 kg) at three months, as did the subjects with NFG (10.1 ± 1.3 kg). Fasting blood glucose in the IFG group decreased from 108.49 ± 6.4 to 101.8 ± 9.41 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) after three months. There were also significant reductions in triglycerides, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both groups in association with weight loss. Conclusion: Our medically supervised self-pay multidisciplinary weight management program was associated with reduced fasting blood glucose levels in patients with IFG over three months with comparable weight loss to patients with NFG. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Endoscopic and Histopathological Findings of the Esophagus, Stomach, and Duodenum in Patients with Crohn’s Disease from a Reference Center in Bahia, Brazil
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 374-385; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020052 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
(1) The aim of the present study was to describe the endoscopic and histopathological findings in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patients with Crohn’s disease. (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients receiving treatment from the inflammatory bowel disease [...] Read more.
(1) The aim of the present study was to describe the endoscopic and histopathological findings in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patients with Crohn’s disease. (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients receiving treatment from the inflammatory bowel disease outpatient clinic. Esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies of the stomach and proximal duodenum were performed. Presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria was assessed by Giemsa staining. (3) Results: We included 58 patients. Erosive esophagitis was identified in 25 patients (43.1%), gastritis was diagnosed in 32 patients (55.2%) and erosive duodenitis was found in eight (13.8%). The most frequent histopathological finding in the H. pylori-positive group was increased inflammatory activity in the gastric body and antrum, with a predominance of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. In turn, the most frequent finding in the H. pylori-negative group was chronic inflammation with predominance of mononuclear cells. Focally enhanced gastritis was identified in four patients (6.9%), all of whom were negative for H. pylori. Granulomas were not observed. H. pylori infection was present in 19 patients (32.8%). (4) Conclusions: Nonspecific endoscopic and histological findings were frequent in patients with Crohn’s disease. Focally enhanced gastritis was uncommon and observed only in H. pylori-negative patients. The time from the diagnosis, patient age, and therapy in use may have influenced the nondetection of epithelioid granuloma. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Case Series of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in Children during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in Latvia
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 363-373; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020051 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
The total number of COVID-19 positive cases in Latvia has escalated rapidly since October 2020, peaking in late December 2020 and early January 2021. Children generally develop COVID-19 more mildly than adults; however, it can be complicated by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children [...] Read more.
The total number of COVID-19 positive cases in Latvia has escalated rapidly since October 2020, peaking in late December 2020 and early January 2021. Children generally develop COVID-19 more mildly than adults; however, it can be complicated by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This case study aims were to assess demographic characteristics and the underlying medical conditions, and clinical, investigative and treatment data among 13 MIS-C patients using electronic medical records. All 13 had acute illness or contact with someone who was COVID-19 positive two to six weeks before MIS-C onset. Only five of the 13 were symptomatic during the acute COVID-19 phase. The median age was 8.8 years; 11/13 patients were male, 10/13 had been previously healthy, and all 13 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR or antibody testing. The most commonly involved organ systems were the gastrointestinal (13/13), hematologic (13/13), cardiovascular (13/13), skin and mucosa (13/13), and respiratory (12/13) ones. The median hospital stay was 13 (interquartile range, 11 to 18) days; 7/13 patients received intensive care, 6/13 oxygen support, and 5/13 received inotropic support. No deaths occurred. During the current pandemic, every child with a fever should have a clearly defined epidemiological history of COVID-19, a careful clinical assessment of possible multiple organ-system involvement, with a special focus on children with severe abdominal pain and/or skin and mucocutaneous lesions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
A Rare Cause of Drug-Induced Pancytopenia: Trimethoprim–Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Pancytopenia
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 358-362; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020050 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Pancytopenia is a decrease across cellular hematological lines. Many different etiologies can cause this clinical picture including viral and bacterial infections, chemicals, malignancy, and medications. Particular attention should be paid to the onset, timing, and severity as they can indicate the underlying cause. [...] Read more.
Pancytopenia is a decrease across cellular hematological lines. Many different etiologies can cause this clinical picture including viral and bacterial infections, chemicals, malignancy, and medications. Particular attention should be paid to the onset, timing, and severity as they can indicate the underlying cause. In cases of iatrogenic-induced pancytopenia, the offending agent should be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for recovery of cell lines. While not well reported in the literature, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a cause of pancytopenia. We present a case of drug-induced pancytopenia secondary to TMP-SMX that resolved quickly with cessation of use. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Maggot Therapy as a Part of a Holistic Approach in the Treatment of Multimorbid Patients with Chronic Ulcer
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 347-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020049 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Patients with chronic wounds (leg ulcers, decubitus, and diabetic foot ulcers) suffer from marked restrictions in their quality of life and can often no longer adequately carry out their everyday tasks. The need for nursing and medical care increases when other illnesses and [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic wounds (leg ulcers, decubitus, and diabetic foot ulcers) suffer from marked restrictions in their quality of life and can often no longer adequately carry out their everyday tasks. The need for nursing and medical care increases when other illnesses and complaints are present at the same time. Qualified wound care and the treatment of comorbidities are therefore of particular importance. The treatment of this disease, which is increasing in number, requires a holistic, multimodal treatment approach which, in addition to professional wound care, also includes comorbidities in the treatment. This case study describes an old treatment method for refractory wounds, the so-called “maggot therapy”, and shows how this is integrated into a holistic, multimodal therapeutic approach. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Revisited: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Study
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 337-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020048 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
(1) Objective: To review the criteria proposed by Cerero-Lapiedra et al. and to retrospectively identify the under-diagnosed disease in patients diagnosed with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. (2) Materials and methods: In this study, we included patients who were diagnosed with leukoplakia (histological label consistent [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: To review the criteria proposed by Cerero-Lapiedra et al. and to retrospectively identify the under-diagnosed disease in patients diagnosed with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. (2) Materials and methods: In this study, we included patients who were diagnosed with leukoplakia (histological label consistent with the clinical diagnosis, n = 95), and cases with a final diagnosis within the spectrum of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (n = 110) as defined by Batsakis et al. We applied the criteria proposed by Cerero-Lepiedra et al. to screen for the possible cases of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. (3) Results: Although many of our patients satisfied specific isolated criteria, only 11 cases satisfied specific combinations of the guidelines to satisfy a diagnosis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. However, due to the lack of follow-up data, the disease is not confirmed in these 11 cases. (4) Conclusion: A limited number of cases of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia were diagnosed using the criteria given by Cerero-Lapiedra et al. The true natural history of the disease could not be studied due to the lack of follow-up data. (5) Clinical relevance: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia presenting as hyperkeratosis or mild epithelial dysplasia are often not followed up, and they subsequently transform into carcinoma. Thus, clinicians must be vigilant whenever they encounter leukoplakia, especially with multifocal presentations. In such cases, the follow-up data are the key to understanding the true nature of the disease entity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Theophylline in Treatment of COVID-19 Induced Sinus Bradycardia
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 332-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020047 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This is a retrospective case series of two patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, presented to the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in January 2021. Medical records of these patients were reviewed using the EPIC electronic health record system. Clinical, laboratory, [...] Read more.
This is a retrospective case series of two patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, presented to the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in January 2021. Medical records of these patients were reviewed using the EPIC electronic health record system. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were reviewed against periods of bradycardia in each patient. Both of the patients presented with dizziness and presyncope related to sinus bradycardia in which they received treatment with 1 mg of IV atropine and theophylline 200 mg orally. We share these two cases of theophylline treatment in COVID-19 induced sinus bradycardia. The first patient was a 39-year-old female, with a past medical history of polycystic ovarian syndrome, who presented to the emergency department with lightheadedness and dizziness. Two weeks prior to her presentation, she was tested positive for COVID-19 infection that was treated with azithromycin, dexamethasone and aspirin. Upon presentation, her ECG showed sinus bradycardia at a rate of 48 bpm. The second patient, a 21-year-old female with no significant past medical history, presented with presyncope. Three weeks prior to her presentation, she tested positive for COVID-19 infection that was treated symptomatically at her home. Upon presentation, her ECG showed junctional rhythm at a heart rate of 51 bpm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Doubly Blinded: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Visual Loss Due to Orbital Compartment Syndrome
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 327-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020046 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
A 68-year-old female patient with a past medical history of atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation regimen with Apixaban and Clopidogrel presented for her scheduled Watchman device implantation. The device was indicated as patient was high risk for falling. Successful implantation of the left atrial [...] Read more.
A 68-year-old female patient with a past medical history of atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation regimen with Apixaban and Clopidogrel presented for her scheduled Watchman device implantation. The device was indicated as patient was high risk for falling. Successful implantation of the left atrial appendage device was carried out, and the patient was sent to the floor. One hour after the procedure, the patient started having left-sided diplopia along with severe eye pain. An immediate CT scan of the head showed left superior orbital mass, concerning for hematoma. Urgent left canthotomy with cantholysis was conducted bedside. However, despite early interventions, the patient’s vision was lost. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Resolution of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following Correction for Upper Cross Syndrome—A Case Study and Brief Review
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 322-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020045 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Upper cross syndrome (UCS) is a condition caused from prolonged poor posture manifesting as thoracic hyperkyphosis with forward head and shoulder postures. It has been associated with several other secondary conditions, causing pain and discomfort to those with the condition. This is a [...] Read more.
Upper cross syndrome (UCS) is a condition caused from prolonged poor posture manifesting as thoracic hyperkyphosis with forward head and shoulder postures. It has been associated with several other secondary conditions, causing pain and discomfort to those with the condition. This is a case report of a 35-year-old female presenting to clinic with a sharp pain in the neck, upper back, and sternum area for 4 weeks and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). She had been working at home for several months after the shelter at home order was issued. Following evaluation and corrective treatment with cervical adjustment and soft tissue massage, the patient’s posture improved and reported full pain resolution. Her symptoms of GERD concurrently resolved as well. She continued to receive chiropractic adjustment two times per month for correcting spinal misalignment. Full restoration of posture was attained on the full spine radiographs at 9 months follow-up. The patient remained symptom-free at 12 months follow-up. Manipulative and preventive therapies aimed at treating and preventing UCS should be more widely adopted to prevent secondary conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Analysis of COVID-19 on Diagnosis, Vaccine, Treatment, and Pathogenesis with Clinical Scenarios
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 309-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020044 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
As the world continues to suffer from an ever-growing number of confirmed cases of the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus, researchers are at the forefront of developing the best plan to overcome this pandemic through analyzing the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment options pertaining to the [...] Read more.
As the world continues to suffer from an ever-growing number of confirmed cases of the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus, researchers are at the forefront of developing the best plan to overcome this pandemic through analyzing the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment options pertaining to the virus. In the midst of a pandemic, the main route for detection of the virus has been conducting antigen tests for rapid results, using qRT-PCR, and conducting more accurate molecular tests, using rRT-PCR, on samples from patients. Most common treatments for those infected with COVID-19 include Remdesivir, an antiviral, dexamethasone, a steroid, and rarely, monoclonal antibody treatments. Although these treatments exist and are used commonly in hospitals all around the globe, clinicians often challenge the efficacy and benefit of these remedies for the patient. Furthermore, targeted therapies largely focus on interfering with or reducing the binding of viral receptors and host cell receptors affected by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus. In addition to treatment, the most efficacious method of preventing the spread of COVID-19 is the development of multiple vaccines that have been distributed as well as the development of multiple vaccine candidates that are proving hopeful in preventing severe symptoms of the virus. The exaggerated immune response to the virus proves to be a worrying complication due to widespread inflammation and subsequent clinical sequela. The medical and scientific community as a whole will be expected to respond with the latest in technology and research, and further studies into the pathogenesis, clinical implications, identification, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 will push society past this pandemic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Extensive Left Ventricular Thrombosis with Concomitant Pulmonary Embolism
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 303-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020043 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 897
Abstract
A 57-year-old non-obese female patient with a history of heavy smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension was admitted to the hospital as an emergency for acute hemoptysis and signs of congestive heart failure. To assess the source of hemoptysis, computed tomography (CT) [...] Read more.
A 57-year-old non-obese female patient with a history of heavy smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension was admitted to the hospital as an emergency for acute hemoptysis and signs of congestive heart failure. To assess the source of hemoptysis, computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography was performed, which confirmed a bilateral pulmonary embolism of the apical branches. The routinely performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed an enlarged left ventricle with severely reduced ejection fraction (EF = 25%) due to global hypokinesia and multiple, mobile, echogenic masses. To increase the diagnostic accuracy, real-time three-dimensional (Live 3D) imaging of the masses was added which described multiple left ventricular (LV) thrombi. Successful resolution of intraventricular thrombi was noticed after treatment with oral anticoagulant therapy (acenocumarol), despite the lack of regular INR control. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Uncommon Presentation of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 293-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020042 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Diagnosis of anomalous intrathoracic lesions may be challenging and require a multidisciplinary approach. We present a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) clinically and radiologically mimicking metastatic lung cancer with a bilateral pulmonary mass, mediastinal and cervical lymph node involvement, and pleural effusion. [...] Read more.
Diagnosis of anomalous intrathoracic lesions may be challenging and require a multidisciplinary approach. We present a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) clinically and radiologically mimicking metastatic lung cancer with a bilateral pulmonary mass, mediastinal and cervical lymph node involvement, and pleural effusion. Surgical biopsy of the thoracic lesion revealed necrotic granulomatous inflammation, and the final diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by kidney biopsy and biochemical parameters. This case illustrates how comprehensive diagnosis secures timely and relevant treatment. Systemic vasculitis may be one of the key differential diagnoses in patients with multiorgan involvement, especially with pattern-mimicking lung cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Personalised Prophylaxis in a Child with Haemophilia A and Type 1 Diabetes
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 287-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020041 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Poor management of either type 1 diabetes or haemophilia A can lead to complications such as organ dysfunction and haemarthropathy. Here, we describe the case of an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with severe haemophilia A shortly after birth. At 2 years old, he was [...] Read more.
Poor management of either type 1 diabetes or haemophilia A can lead to complications such as organ dysfunction and haemarthropathy. Here, we describe the case of an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with severe haemophilia A shortly after birth. At 2 years old, he was also diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. After six years, the haemophilia treatment was changed from a plasma-derived factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate (octanate®, Octapharma, Lachen, Switzerland) to Nuwiq® (simocotocog alfa, Octapharma, Lachen, Switzerland), a recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) product from a human cell line, which allowed for a personalised treatment schedule that supported good adherence. The dosing regimen could be reduced to two weekly rFVIII infusions. The patient has experienced no spontaneous bleeds since switching to rFVIII and shows no signs of joint damage after over seven years of FVIII prophylaxis. rFVIII was well tolerated, with no treatment-related adverse events observed. This case illustrates the importance of treatment personalisation for young patients and their families managing concomitant diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Impact of Oral Lichen Planus on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 272-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020040 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Oral health-related quality of life (OR-QoL) measurement in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) can provide valuable information for the optimal management of their clinical conditions. The main objective of the present study was to assess the OR-QoL of patients with OLP as [...] Read more.
Oral health-related quality of life (OR-QoL) measurement in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) can provide valuable information for the optimal management of their clinical conditions. The main objective of the present study was to assess the OR-QoL of patients with OLP as measured by the short-form Oral Health Impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire. PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, clinical trial registry, Embase, Scopus, and grey literature (via Google Scholar and Scilit) were searched. Reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts, assessed full-text articles, extracted data, and appraised their quality. Random effect analysis along with subgroup analysis for age, gender, and clinical type was performed. Seventeen studies were included. Mean overall OH-QoL was 15.20, [95% CI 12.176, 18.231]; a higher OHIP-14 score was seen in OLP patients, resulting in poor OH-QoL. The impact of OLP on OH-QoL life was moderate as compared to healthy subjects. However, medical treatment of the disease improved the OH-QoL and thus reduced the impact of OLP on it. OH-QoL among patients with OLP is generally poor. Clinicians and physicians should consider the OH-QoL of these patients as part of patients’ evaluation and modulate the administered treatment based on the OH-QoL response. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus per Different Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes and Postpartum Glycemia: A Prospective Study in Ghana
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 257-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020039 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
The surge in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) globally requires a health system tailored approach towards prevention, detection and management. We estimated the prevalence of GDM using diverse recommended tests and diagnostic thresholds, and also assessed the risk factors and obstetric outcomes, including postpartum [...] Read more.
The surge in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) globally requires a health system tailored approach towards prevention, detection and management. We estimated the prevalence of GDM using diverse recommended tests and diagnostic thresholds, and also assessed the risk factors and obstetric outcomes, including postpartum glycemia. Using a prospective cohort design, 446 singleton pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes did GDM tests in five hospitals in Ghana from 20–34 weeks using fasting plasma glucose (FPG), one-hour and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Birth outcomes of 403 were assessed. GDM was diagnosed using six international diagnostic criteria. At 12 weeks postpartum, impaired fasting glucose (6.1–6.9 mmol/L) and diabetes (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L) were measured for 100 women. Per FPG and 2-h OGTT cut-offs, GDM prevalence ranged between 8.3–23.8% and 4.4–14.3%, respectively. Risk factors included overweight (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.13–4.03), previous miscarriage (OR = 4.01, 95% CI: 1.09–14.76) and high caloric intake (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.05–8.07). Perineal tear (RR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.08–5.57) and birth asphyxia (RR = 3.24, 95% CI: 1.01–10.45) were the associated perinatal outcomes. At 12 weeks postpartum, 15% had impaired fasting glucose, and 5% had diabetes. Tackling modifiable risk factors is crucial for prevention. Glycemic monitoring needs to be integral in postpartum and well-child reviews. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Combination of Levamisole with Prednisone in Treating Recurrent Major Aphthous Ulcer in a Young Boy: A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 250-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020038 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is an oral condition characterized by painful oral ulcerations. While the clinical features of this disease are easily defined, the etiology remains unclear. Thus, existing treatments are still unsatisfactory in reducing the severity, healing, and recurrence rate; however, there [...] Read more.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is an oral condition characterized by painful oral ulcerations. While the clinical features of this disease are easily defined, the etiology remains unclear. Thus, existing treatments are still unsatisfactory in reducing the severity, healing, and recurrence rate; however, there is no permanent and definitive treatment. Effective treatment for aphthous stomatitis is not available, and those treatments available mainly focus on suppressing its symptoms. We are reporting a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with a 3-year history of multiple recurrent major ulcers in the oral cavity. Levamisole with steroids has been used in many clinical trials to treat aphthous ulcers, showing an improvement in pain, discomfort, healing time, and reduction in the number of ulcers. The same method was used to treat our patient, who showed promising results, with no recurrence for one year. Levamisole is a safe, easily tolerable and promising drug for the treatment of RAS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
SARS-CoV-2-Associated Obliterative Arteritis Causing Massive Testicular Infarction
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 246-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020037 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
A 26-year-old man with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection developed a sudden-onset acute testicular pain. The echo-doppler images showed massive testicular infarction, so orchiectomy was performed. On gross examination, the surgical specimen showed complete testicular necrosis and diffuse thickening of the testicular coverings. Under the [...] Read more.
A 26-year-old man with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection developed a sudden-onset acute testicular pain. The echo-doppler images showed massive testicular infarction, so orchiectomy was performed. On gross examination, the surgical specimen showed complete testicular necrosis and diffuse thickening of the testicular coverings. Under the microscope, a severe obliterative arteritis was evidenced. SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody was detected by immunohistochemistry in the arterial endothelium. Electron microscopy displayed intracytoplasmic spiky viral particles in endothelial cells. The patient was treated with corticoids and was asymptomatic at last contact. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
White Nail as a Static Physical Finding: Revitalization of Physical Examination
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 241-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020036 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Physical examinations are critical for diagnosis and should be differentiated into static and dynamic categories. One of the static findings is white nail, such as Terry’s and Lindsay’s nails. Here, we report the cases of two older patients with acute diseases who had [...] Read more.
Physical examinations are critical for diagnosis and should be differentiated into static and dynamic categories. One of the static findings is white nail, such as Terry’s and Lindsay’s nails. Here, we report the cases of two older patients with acute diseases who had nail changes that aided evaluation of their clinical course. Two elderly women who presented with acute conditions were initially thought to have normal serum albumin levels. They were found to have white nail with differences in nail involvement of the first finger, which subsequently revealed their hypoalbuminemia. The clinical courses were different following the distribution of nail whitening. Our findings show that examination of a white nail could indicate the previous clinical status more clearly than laboratory data. It can be useful for evaluating preclinical conditions in patients with acute diseases. Further evaluation is needed to establish the relationship between clinical outcomes and the presence of white nail in acute conditions among older patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Fast-Onset Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease in Anti-MDA5 Antibodies-Associated Amyopathic Dermatomyositis
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 235-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020035 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Anti-MDA5 antibodies-associated amyopathic dermatomyositisis a rare autoimmune disease that involve polyarthritis, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations. The development of rapidly progressing interstitial lung disease is a life-threatening complication. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman without medical history, who was addressed to the [...] Read more.
Anti-MDA5 antibodies-associated amyopathic dermatomyositisis a rare autoimmune disease that involve polyarthritis, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations. The development of rapidly progressing interstitial lung disease is a life-threatening complication. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman without medical history, who was addressed to the Pulmonary Department for a polyarthritis with dry cough and hypoxemic dyspnea. Initially there was neither cutaneous manifestation nor interstitial lung disease on chest CT scan. After a few days, the patient developed fatal acute respiratory failure with diffuse ground glass opacities. Identification of anti-MDA5 antibodies allowed establishing diagnosis, despite the fact that the first immunological assessment was negative. Corticosteroid bolus of 1 g for three days and immunosuppressive treatment by cyclophosphamide was only initiated at the acute respiratory distress syndrome stage. Given the rapidly unfavorable prognosis of this entity of amyopathic dermatomyositis, the testing for anti-MDA5 antibodies should be recommended in case of progressive pulmonary symptoms associated with joint signs in order to identify this disease at an early stage and to begin rapid and adequate management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Granulomatous Mastitis Due to Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 228-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020034 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections of the breast are rare. These infections present as cellulitis of the breast or breast abscess. Their diagnosis poses a challenge as they manifest signs of acute inflammation, unlike tuberculous mycobacterial infections which present in a chronic pattern. However, [...] Read more.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections of the breast are rare. These infections present as cellulitis of the breast or breast abscess. Their diagnosis poses a challenge as they manifest signs of acute inflammation, unlike tuberculous mycobacterial infections which present in a chronic pattern. However, on aspiration of pus from the site of infection, primary smear may show acid fast bacilli. This poses a diagnostic dilemma. The present case is that of a 34-year-old woman who presented with recurrent mastitis. She had history of right breast swelling, for which surgical excision had been performed three months prior at another facility. Her histopathology had showed cystic granulomatous neutrophilic mastitis (CNGM). The patient again presented with right breast abscess which was confirmed on ultrasonography. Incision and drainage along with removal of necrotic tissue was done. Primary smear of pus showed acid fast bacilli on Ziehl–Neelson staining. Bacterial culture and line probe speciation revealed non-tuberculous mycobacterium M. abscessus, which responded well to prolonged anti-microbial therapy. These rapidly growing NTM require prolonged treatment and are quite often recurrent. M. abscessus is a rare cause of CNGM, with this being only the third reported case in literature. A brief case report with a review of literature is presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
A Case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura without Pathognomonic Schistocytes
by and
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 223-227; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020033 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Patients diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) typically present with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia; these two clinical manifestations were often believed to be essential indicators of TTP. However, such indicators are not always present in every case. Here, we present a [...] Read more.
Patients diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) typically present with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia; these two clinical manifestations were often believed to be essential indicators of TTP. However, such indicators are not always present in every case. Here, we present a patient affected by TTP but showing no distinctive schistocytes on blood smear review. TTP was diagnosed through a critically low level of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity. Awareness of such an atypical presentation of TTP is essential for timely treatment to prevent serious and even fatal outcomes for patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia Following Viral Illness
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 219-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020032 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
A 67-year-old female patient with a past medical history of menopause, migraines, and gastro-esophageal disease presented with palpitation, fatigue, and shortness of breath. One month prior to her presentation, she reported having flu-like symptoms. Her EKG showed sinus tachycardia with no other abnormality. [...] Read more.
A 67-year-old female patient with a past medical history of menopause, migraines, and gastro-esophageal disease presented with palpitation, fatigue, and shortness of breath. One month prior to her presentation, she reported having flu-like symptoms. Her EKG showed sinus tachycardia with no other abnormality. Laboratory findings, along with imaging, showed normal results. The event monitor failed to detect any arrythmias. We report a case of inappropriate sinus tachycardia secondary to viral infection as a diagnosis of exclusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis after a Single Dose of Empagliflozin in a Patient with Pancreatitis
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 216-218; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020031 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are the most recently approved drug class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Although they are largely well-tolerated, their intake has been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in some rare cases. We report the [...] Read more.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are the most recently approved drug class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Although they are largely well-tolerated, their intake has been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in some rare cases. We report the case of a 70-year-old male with type 2 diabetes and no history of DKA, who started therapy with empagliflozin one day before presenting with acute pancreatitis and laboratory findings consistent with euglycemic DKA. SGLT2i can induce euglycemic DKA from the first dose. Given the atypical presentation, a high degree of clinical suspicion is required to recognize this complication. Full article
Review
Malignant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: A Practice Review
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 205-215; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020030 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Introduction: Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast, particularly malignant phyllodes tumor (mPT), is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm. A complex diagnosis is based on pathologic, radiologic, and clinical findings, with controversies about what is the best therapeutic strategy. Objective: Our objective was to provide [...] Read more.
Introduction: Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast, particularly malignant phyllodes tumor (mPT), is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm. A complex diagnosis is based on pathologic, radiologic, and clinical findings, with controversies about what is the best therapeutic strategy. Objective: Our objective was to provide an overview of the clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects of this rare tumor. Conclusions: mPT is a rare presentation of breast cancer and a challenge in clinical practice. A multidisciplinary approach should take into account some aspects like pathogenic mutations and hereditary syndromes. Oncologic surgery is the fundamental approach, and the use of adjuvant therapies is still controversial due to the lack of clinical trials. Treatment recommendations should be individualized according to patient risk and preferences. Prospective studies are fundamental to clarifying the best treatment for these tumors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Ruptured Emphysematous Liver Abscess: An Unusual Presentation in Kochs
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 200-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020029 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Gas forming liver abscess (GFLA) though rare is seen in diabetic patients. Rupture of such abscesses usually requires surgical intervention. These cases are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to sepsis. Tuberculous liver abscesses are more often silent in presentation. GFLA formed [...] Read more.
Gas forming liver abscess (GFLA) though rare is seen in diabetic patients. Rupture of such abscesses usually requires surgical intervention. These cases are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to sepsis. Tuberculous liver abscesses are more often silent in presentation. GFLA formed in the background of a tuberculous liver abscess is rare. We present a case of ruptured GFLA with underlying tuberculous pathology in a normoglycemic patient. The abscess was managed by image guided intervention. A brief case report along with review of literature is presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Laying Open and Curettage under Local Anesthesia to Treat Pilonidal Sinus: Long-Term Follow-Up in 111 Consecutively Operated Patients
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 193-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020028 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
(1) Background: Several techniques for the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) are in vogue, though none have emerged as the gold standard. Laying open (deroofing) and curettage under local anesthesia is one of the most straightforward procedures to treat PSD. In this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several techniques for the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) are in vogue, though none have emerged as the gold standard. Laying open (deroofing) and curettage under local anesthesia is one of the most straightforward procedures to treat PSD. In this study, the long-term follow-up in a large series was analyzed. (2) Methods: The laying open approach was performed for all types of consecutive PSD patients—simple, complicated, and abscess. The primary outcome parameter of the study was the healing rate. The secondary outcome parameters were operating time, hospital stay, time to resumption of normal work, and healing time. (3) Results: 111 (M/F–92/19, mean age-22.9 ± 5.7 years) consecutive patients were operated on and followed for 38 months (6–111 months). Of these, 24 had pilonidal abscesses, 87 had chronic pilonidal disease, while 22 had recurrent disease. Operating time and hospital stay were 24 ± 7 min and 66 ± 23 min, respectively. On average, patients could resume normal work in 3.6 ± 2.9 days and the healing time was 43.8 ± 7.4 days. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Complete resolution of the disease occurred in 104/108 (96.3%) patients, while 4 (3.7%) had a recurrence. One recurrence was due to a missed tract, while three recurrences presented after complete healing had occurred. Two patients with recurrence were operated on again with the same procedure, and both healed completely. Thus, the overall success rate of this procedure was 98.1% (106/108) with a recurrence rate after first surgery of 3.7% over a median follow-up of 38 months. (4) Conclusions: Pilonidal disease managed by laying open (deroofing) with curettage under local anesthesia is associated with a high cure rate. This procedure is effective in treating all kinds of pilonidal disease (simple, complicated, and abscess). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Synergistic Effects of Dexamethasone and Dexmedetomidine in Extending the Effects of Pectoral I and Pectoral II Blocks for Postoperative Analgesia Following Total Mastectomy with Lymph Node Dissection
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 190-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020027 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Regional anesthesia is an important aspect of the overall anesthetic plan for patients. It has the potential to offer superior benefits compared to opioid-based treatment and is an important component of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocols. The use of the pectoral type [...] Read more.
Regional anesthesia is an important aspect of the overall anesthetic plan for patients. It has the potential to offer superior benefits compared to opioid-based treatment and is an important component of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocols. The use of the pectoral type I (PECS I) and pectoral type II blocks (PECS II) has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients undergoing complete mastectomy and breast surgery. We describe the use of dexamethasone and dexmedetomidine to prolong the analgesic effects of these regional blocks in a patient undergoing total mastectomy with lymph node dissection. Full article
Case Report
Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis (EDS) Secondary to Hair Dye Ingestion: Case Report and Literature Review
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 185-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020026 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (EDS) is a rare and underdiagnosed esophageal lesion characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa that has been associated with medications, various autoimmune disorders, and exposure to some chemical irritants. Anatomically, EDS is most commonly seen in the middle and [...] Read more.
Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (EDS) is a rare and underdiagnosed esophageal lesion characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa that has been associated with medications, various autoimmune disorders, and exposure to some chemical irritants. Anatomically, EDS is most commonly seen in the middle and distal thirds of the esophagus. When present, EDS is best treated by discontinuing the offending agent and initiating pharmacologic therapy with proton pump inhibitors. Steroids may also be effective if the etiology is autoimmune in nature. Our case highlights a 65-year-old female diagnosed with EDS after incidental ingestion of hair dye containing resorcinol and para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
A Prospective Study Comparing Laparoscopic vs. Conventional Stomach Pull Up in Total Pharyngo-Laryngo-Esophagectomy for Post Cricoid Cancer
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 178-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020025 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The aim of this study is to compare laparoscopic and conventional techniques following Total Pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy (TPLE) with respect to perioperative morbidity and mortality and postoperative recovery in post cricoid cancer patients. This is a prospective study, which was undertaken in Gujrat Cancer Research [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to compare laparoscopic and conventional techniques following Total Pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy (TPLE) with respect to perioperative morbidity and mortality and postoperative recovery in post cricoid cancer patients. This is a prospective study, which was undertaken in Gujrat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI) in the period of July 2007 to March 2010. Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic TPLE were compared to that of 18 consecutive patients who underwent open TPLE. Laparoscopic and open TPLE procedure were compared with respect to patient characteristics, intra operative and complications present. The average duration was observed to be 3.5 h in the MIS (Minimally Invasive Group) group and was 5.3 h in the open group. The average blood loss was 300 mL in the MIS group and 500 mL in the open group. Average duration of the hospital stay in the MIS group was 13 days and 16 days in the open group. In the MIS group, one patient (6.7%) had a pneumonic complication and two patients (13%) had wound complications. In the open group, six patients (33%) had pneumonic consolidation and four patients (22%) had wound infections. In both groups, one patient each suffered mortality. Laparoscopic TPLE has been found to be much safer with less morbidity as compared with open surgery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop