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Article

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus per Different Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes and Postpartum Glycemia: A Prospective Study in Ghana

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Department of Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Health Sciences, Ho, Ghana, Private Mail Bag 31 Ho, Ghana
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Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, University Hospital Heidelberg Germany, Im Neuenheimer Feld 130.3, 60120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Public Health Department, University for Development Studies, Tamale Ghana, Tamale P.O. Box TL 1350, Ghana
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(2), 257-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020039
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
The surge in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) globally requires a health system tailored approach towards prevention, detection and management. We estimated the prevalence of GDM using diverse recommended tests and diagnostic thresholds, and also assessed the risk factors and obstetric outcomes, including postpartum glycemia. Using a prospective cohort design, 446 singleton pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes did GDM tests in five hospitals in Ghana from 20–34 weeks using fasting plasma glucose (FPG), one-hour and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Birth outcomes of 403 were assessed. GDM was diagnosed using six international diagnostic criteria. At 12 weeks postpartum, impaired fasting glucose (6.1–6.9 mmol/L) and diabetes (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L) were measured for 100 women. Per FPG and 2-h OGTT cut-offs, GDM prevalence ranged between 8.3–23.8% and 4.4–14.3%, respectively. Risk factors included overweight (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.13–4.03), previous miscarriage (OR = 4.01, 95% CI: 1.09–14.76) and high caloric intake (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.05–8.07). Perineal tear (RR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.08–5.57) and birth asphyxia (RR = 3.24, 95% CI: 1.01–10.45) were the associated perinatal outcomes. At 12 weeks postpartum, 15% had impaired fasting glucose, and 5% had diabetes. Tackling modifiable risk factors is crucial for prevention. Glycemic monitoring needs to be integral in postpartum and well-child reviews. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia in pregnancy; blood glucose; pregnancy; prevalence; risk factors; newborn; pregnancy outcome; postpartum period; Ghana gestational diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia in pregnancy; blood glucose; pregnancy; prevalence; risk factors; newborn; pregnancy outcome; postpartum period; Ghana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Agbozo, F.; Abubakari, A.; Zotor, F.; Jahn, A. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus per Different Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes and Postpartum Glycemia: A Prospective Study in Ghana. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 257-271. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020039

AMA Style

Agbozo F, Abubakari A, Zotor F, Jahn A. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus per Different Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes and Postpartum Glycemia: A Prospective Study in Ghana. Clinics and Practice. 2021; 11(2):257-271. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agbozo, Faith; Abubakari, Abdulai; Zotor, Francis; Jahn, Albrecht. 2021. "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus per Different Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes and Postpartum Glycemia: A Prospective Study in Ghana" Clin. Pract. 11, no. 2: 257-271. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020039

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