Test and Modelling of Commercial V2G CHAdeMO Chargers to Assess the Suitability for Grid Services
2. The Need for Hardware Performance Assessment When Controlling EVs
- (i) Direction: The information if an EV can provide only uni-directional or bi-directional (V2G) power flow.
- (ii) Set-point linearity: The discreteness of the charging/discharging power set-point.
- (iii) Starting time and maximum activation time: The period between receiving the set-point and activating the flexibility.
- (iv-v) Ramp-up/ramp-down time: The up/downwards time between activation time and full service provision, and vice versa.
- (vi) Accuracy: The difference between the required and the delivered response, e.g., the acceptable response band.
- (vii) Precision: The variation of the delivered response for a given set-point.
3. Locally and Remotely Controlled EVs Performance Tests
3.1. Outcome of Local Control Tests
3.1.1. Calculation of Efficiency Map
3.1.2. Calculation of Activation Time
3.2. Outcome of Remote Control Tests
3.2.1. Calculation of Set-Point Linearity
3.2.2. Calculation of Total Activation Time
3.2.3. Calculation of Ramping Up/Down
3.2.4. Calculation of Set-Point Accuracy
3.2.5. Calculation of Set-Point Precision
4. Experimental Tests Discussion
5. Modelling of the Tested Hardware
- the Activation time (iii) is modelled as a transport delay, equal to 4 s or 7 s in case of local or remote control, respectively;
- the Ramp-up/-down time (iv)–(v) is modelled with a rate limiter block, with the mean values 3.35 kW/s and 3.31 kW/s, respectively;
- the Set-point linearity (ii) is obtained by implementing Equation (1):
- the Accuracy (vi) is implemented by adding to the power set-point the appropriate mean value of accuracy, i.e., 740 W, −440 W, and 420 W for negative set-point, positive set-point and zero set-point, respectively. The implementation is obtained according to Equation (2):
- the Precision (vii) is implemented by adding a uniformly distributed noise to the calculated set-point. On average, the noise has a an amplitude of 50 W and 6 W for set-point ≠ 0 and for zero set-point, respectively. The implementation is obtained according to Equation (3):
Conflicts of Interest
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|Cycle 1||Cycle 2||Cycle 3||Cycle 4|
|up 1||8.84 kW in 3 s||8.84 kW in 4 s||8.82 kW in 3 s||8.84 kW in 4 s|
|up 2||9.03 kW in 4 s||9.04 kW in 4 s||9.03 kW in 4 s||9.04 kW in 5 s|
|up 3||17.87 kW in 6 s||17.85 kW in 6 s||17.88 kW in 4 s||17.86 kW in 6 s|
|up 4||8.84 kW in 4 s||8.84 kW in 1 s||8.83 kW in 4 s||8.84 kW in 3 s|
|Ramp-up AVG||3.35 kW/s|
|down 1||8.99 kW in 3 s||8.79 kW in 4 s||8.79 kW in 4 s||8.99 kW in 3 s|
|down 2||9.33 kW in 3 s||9.16 kW in 1 s||9.17 kW in 1 s||9.16 kW in 4 s|
|down 3||8.79 kW in 4 s||8.98 kW in 3 s||8.97 kW in 4 s||8.99 kW in 4 s|
|down 4||18.12 kW in 6 s||18.14 kW in 7 s||18.13 kW in 7 s||18.14 kW in7 s|
|Ramp-down AVG||3.31 kW/s|
|Attribute||Short Description||Unit||Target for Primary |
|(i) Direction||Support of bi-|
directional power flow
|+/−/±||±||± i.e., V2G capable|
|(ii) Set-point linearity|
|[W]||Linear at 1%|
<400 W (4%)
(1 A @ 400V DC)
|(iii) Starting time and max. activation time|
and change in
Local control: 4 s
Remote control: 7 s
|(iv) Ramp-up time||Supported rate|
of change in
|[kW/s]||For the aggregate:|
AVG = 3.35 kW/s
Max = 8.84 kW/s
min = 1.81 kW/s
|(v) Ramp-down time||Supported rate|
of change in
|[kW/s]||For the aggregate:|
AVG = 3.31 kW/s
Max = 9.17 kW/s
min = 1.98 kW/s
|(vi) Accuracy||Difference between|
|[W]||±5% of set-point|
±0.5% of rated pow.
Negative set-point: 740 W
(+8.7% of set-point)
(+7.4% of rated pow.)
Positive set-point: −440 W
(-5.2% of set-point)
(−4.4% of rated pow.)
420 W @ zero set-point
(4.2% of rated pow.)
|(vii) Precision||Variation of the|
(0.6% of set-point)
(0.5% of rated pow.)
6 W @ zero set-point
(0.06% of rated pow.)
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Zecchino, A.; Thingvad, A.; Andersen, P.B.; Marinelli, M. Test and Modelling of Commercial V2G CHAdeMO Chargers to Assess the Suitability for Grid Services. World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10020021
Zecchino A, Thingvad A, Andersen PB, Marinelli M. Test and Modelling of Commercial V2G CHAdeMO Chargers to Assess the Suitability for Grid Services. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2019; 10(2):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10020021Chicago/Turabian Style
Zecchino, Antonio, Andreas Thingvad, Peter Bach Andersen, and Mattia Marinelli. 2019. "Test and Modelling of Commercial V2G CHAdeMO Chargers to Assess the Suitability for Grid Services" World Electric Vehicle Journal 10, no. 2: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10020021