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Pharmaceutics, Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 300 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Treating pulmonary infections by inhalation of drug-containing particles is highly promising as a strategy to directly deliver drugs to the site of action (lungs), thus reducing side effects. However, the particles should have sufficient loads, suitable release kinetics and a size no larger than 5 microns, if bronchioles and/or alveoli are targeted. In this work, an atomization process has been used to obtain alginate microparticles within the desired size range, followed by a drying process using progressive solvent exchange, and finally antibiotic (colistin sulfate) loading. Antibiotic crystals were formed on the surface of alginate microparticles, promoting a fast release that is desirable for inhaled therapeutics. The drug content was higher than 8% and its bactericidal activity was preserved after loading. View this paper
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Article
Therapy of Organophosphate Poisoning via Intranasal Administration of 2-PAM-Loaded Chitosomes
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122846 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Chitosan-decorated liposomes were proposed for the first time for the intranasal delivery of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) to the brain as a therapy for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) poisoning. Firstly, the chitosome composition based on phospholipids, cholesterol, chitosans (Cs) of different molecular [...] Read more.
Chitosan-decorated liposomes were proposed for the first time for the intranasal delivery of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) to the brain as a therapy for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) poisoning. Firstly, the chitosome composition based on phospholipids, cholesterol, chitosans (Cs) of different molecular weights, and its arginine derivative was developed and optimized. The use of the polymer modification led to an increase in the encapsulation efficiency toward rhodamine B (RhB; ~85%) and 2-PAM (~60%) by 20% compared to conventional liposomes. The formation of monodispersed and stable nanosized particles with a hydrodynamic diameter of up to 130 nm was shown using dynamic light scattering. The addition of the polymers recharged the liposome surface (from −15 mV to +20 mV), which demonstrates the successful deposition of Cs on the vesicles. In vitro spectrophotometric analysis showed a slow release of substrates (RhB and 2-PAM) from the nanocontainers, while the concentration and Cs type did not significantly affect the chitosome permeability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated the penetration of the developed chitosomes into normal Chang liver and M-HeLa cervical cancer cells. At the final stage, the ability of the formulated 2-PAM to reactivate brain AChE was assessed in a model of paraoxon-induced poisoning in an in vivo test. Intranasal administration of 2-PAM-containing chitosomes allows it to reach the degree of enzyme reactivation up to 35 ± 4%. Full article
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Article
Effects of Mangiferin on LPS-Induced Inflammation and SARS-CoV-2 Viral Adsorption in Human Lung Cells
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122845 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 644
Abstract
The growing interest in natural bioactive molecules, as an approach to many pathological contexts, is widely justified by the necessity to overcome the disadvantageous benefit–risk ratio related to traditional therapies. Among them, mangiferin (MGF) shows promising beneficial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and [...] Read more.
The growing interest in natural bioactive molecules, as an approach to many pathological contexts, is widely justified by the necessity to overcome the disadvantageous benefit–risk ratio related to traditional therapies. Among them, mangiferin (MGF) shows promising beneficial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of MGF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung NCI-H292 cells, focusing on its role against COVID-19 adsorption. In order to obtain this information, cells treated with LPS, with or without MGF, were analyzed performing wound healing, gene expression of inflammatory cytokines, GSH quantification, and JC-1 staining. Moreover, the inhibition of viral adsorption was evaluated microbiologically and the results were further confirmed by molecular docking analysis. In this regard, MGF downregulates the expression of several inflammatory factors, enhances GSH levels, promotes the wound healing rate, and restores the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by LPS. In addition, MGF significantly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 adsorption as shown by the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS-2, and furtherly confirmed by microbiological and molecular modeling evaluation. Although more investigations are still needed, all data obtained constitute a solid background, demonstrating the cytoprotective role of MGF in inflammatory mechanisms including COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Natural Product Drugs)
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Article
Dietary-Polysaccharide-Modified Fish-Oil-Based Double Emulsion as a Functional Colloidal Formulation for Oral Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122844 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Oral delivery is the most convenient drug administration route. However, oral delivery of peptides is extremely challenging due to the physical and chemical barriers within the gastrointestinal tract. Polysaccharides are often utilized as polymeric biomaterials in drug delivery. Among these, dietary polysaccharides extracted [...] Read more.
Oral delivery is the most convenient drug administration route. However, oral delivery of peptides is extremely challenging due to the physical and chemical barriers within the gastrointestinal tract. Polysaccharides are often utilized as polymeric biomaterials in drug delivery. Among these, dietary polysaccharides extracted from okra, yam, and spirulina have been reported to stimulate innate immunity with well-known nutritional benefits. In this study, we developed a dietary-polysaccharide-modified fish-oil-based emulsion for oral co-delivery of a hydrophilic PD-L1 blocking peptide and the hydrophobic small molecule simvastatin. The optimal emulsion was nano-sized and exhibited a negative surface charge, high drug encapsulation efficiency of over 97%, low viscosity, and sustained drug release manner. The formulation could significantly increase the uptake of peptides by intestinal Caco-2 cells, which demonstrated the great potential of the formulation for promoting the oral absorption of peptides. Additionally, these dietary polysaccharides could promote dendritic cell maturation and cytokine expression in macrophages, demonstrating that these nutraceutical polysaccharides had dual roles of functioning as promising colloidal delivery systems and as potential immune modulators or adjuvants. Thus, this food-based colloidal delivery system shows promise for the oral delivery of peptide drugs and lays a great platform for future applications in immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Delivery and Controlled Release)
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Article
Hybrid 3D Printed and Electrospun Multi-Scale Hierarchical Polycaprolactone Scaffolds to Induce Bone Differentiation
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2843; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122843 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Complex scaffolds composed of micro- and nano-structures are a key target in tissue engineering and the combination of sequential 3D printing and electrospinning enables the fabrication of these multi-scale structures. In this work, dual 3D printed and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with multiple [...] Read more.
Complex scaffolds composed of micro- and nano-structures are a key target in tissue engineering and the combination of sequential 3D printing and electrospinning enables the fabrication of these multi-scale structures. In this work, dual 3D printed and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with multiple mesh layers were successfully prepared. The scaffold macro- and micro-porosity were assessed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, showing that electrospun fibers formed aligned meshes within the pores of the scaffold. Consequently, the hydrophilicity of the scaffold increased with time, enhancing cell adhesion and growth. Additionally, compression tests in back and forth cycles demonstrated a good shape recovery behavior of the scaffolds. Biological results indicated that hybrid PCL scaffolds are biocompatible and enable a correct cell culture over time. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the scaffolds promoted the mineralization, increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and upregulated the expression of early and late osteogenic markers, namely ALP and osteopontin (OPN), respectively. These results demonstrate that the sequential combination of 3D printing and electrospinning provides a facile method of incorporating fibers within a 3D printed scaffold, becoming a promising approach towards multi-scale hierarchical scaffolds capable of guiding the osteogenic differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Technology for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Application)
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Article
Influence of the Alcohols on the ZnO Synthesis and Its Properties: The Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122842 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials are used in various health-related applications, from antimicrobial textiles to wound dressing composites and from sunscreens to antimicrobial packaging. Purity, surface defects, size, and morphology of the nanoparticles are the main factors that influence the antimicrobial properties. In this [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials are used in various health-related applications, from antimicrobial textiles to wound dressing composites and from sunscreens to antimicrobial packaging. Purity, surface defects, size, and morphology of the nanoparticles are the main factors that influence the antimicrobial properties. In this study, we are comparing the properties of the ZnO nanoparticles obtained by solvolysis using a series of alcohols: primary from methanol to 1-hexanol, secondary (2-propanol and 2-butanol), and tertiary (tert-butanol). While the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles is successfully accomplished in all primary alcohols, the use of secondary or tertiary alcohols does not lead to ZnO as final product, underlining the importance of the used solvent. The shape of the obtained nanoparticles depends on the alcohol used, from quasi-spherical to rods, and consequently, different properties are reported, including photocatalytic and antimicrobial activities. In the photocatalytic study, the ZnO obtained in 1-butanol exhibited the best performance against methylene blue (MB) dye solution, attaining a degradation efficiency of 98.24%. The comparative study among a series of usual model dyes revealed that triarylmethane dyes are less susceptible to photo-degradation. The obtained ZnO nanoparticles present a strong antimicrobial activity on a broad range of microorganisms (bacterial and fungal strains), the size and shape being the important factors. This permits further tailoring for use in medical applications. Full article
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Article
A Thermosensitive, Chitosan-Based Hydrogel as Delivery System for Antibacterial Liposomes to Surgical Site Infections
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2841; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122841 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Prophylaxis and the treatment of surgical site infections (SSIs) with antibiotics frequently fail due to the antibiotic resistance of bacteria and the ability of bacteria to reside in biofilms (i.e., bacterial clusters in a protective matrix). Therefore, alternative antibacterial treatments are required to [...] Read more.
Prophylaxis and the treatment of surgical site infections (SSIs) with antibiotics frequently fail due to the antibiotic resistance of bacteria and the ability of bacteria to reside in biofilms (i.e., bacterial clusters in a protective matrix). Therefore, alternative antibacterial treatments are required to combat biofilm infections. The combination of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and copper ions (Cu2+) exhibited antibiofilm activity against the staphylococci species associated with SSIs; however, the formation of a water-insoluble Cu(DDC)2 complex limits its application to SSIs. Here, we describe the development and antibiofilm activity of an injectable gel containing a liposomal formulation of Cu(DDC)2 and Cu2+ (lipogel). Lyophilized liposomes were incorporated into a mixture of chitosan (CS) and beta-glycerophosphate (βGP), and the thermosensitive gelling properties of CS-βGP and the lipogel were determined. The liposomes remained stable after lyophilization over six months at 4–6 °C and −20 °C. The sol-gel transition of the gel and lipogel occurred between 33 and 39 °C, independently of sterilization or storage at −20 °C. CS-βGP is biocompatible and the liposomes were released over time. The lipogel prevented biofilm formation over 2 days and killed 98.7% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 99.9% of the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Therefore, the lipogel is a promising new prophylaxis and treatment strategy for local application to SSIs. Full article
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Article
Predicting the Temperature Evolution during Nanomilling of Drug Suspensions via a Semi-Theoretical Lumped-Parameter Model
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122840 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Although temperature can significantly affect the stability and degradation of drug nanosuspensions, temperature evolution during the production of drug nanoparticles via wet stirred media milling, also known as nanomilling, has not been studied extensively. This study aims to establish both descriptive and predictive [...] Read more.
Although temperature can significantly affect the stability and degradation of drug nanosuspensions, temperature evolution during the production of drug nanoparticles via wet stirred media milling, also known as nanomilling, has not been studied extensively. This study aims to establish both descriptive and predictive capabilities of a semi-theoretical lumped parameter model (LPM) for temperature evolution. In the experiments, the mill was operated at various stirrer speeds, bead loadings, and bead sizes, while the temperature evolution at the mill outlet was recorded. The LPM was formulated and fitted to the experimental temperature profiles in the training runs, and its parameters, i.e., the apparent heat generation rate Qgen and the apparent overall heat transfer coefficient times surface area UA, were estimated. For the test runs, these parameters were predicted as a function of the process parameters via a power law (PL) model and machine learning (ML) model. The LPM augmented with the PL and ML models was used to predict the temperature evolution in the test runs. The LPM predictions were also compared with those of an enthalpy balance model (EBM) developed recently. The LPM had a fitting capability with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) lower than 0.9 °C, and a prediction capability, when augmented with the PL and ML models, with an RMSE lower than 4.1 and 2.1 °C, respectively. Overall, the LPM augmented with the PL model had both good descriptive and predictive capability, whereas the one with the ML model had a comparable predictive capability. Despite being simple, with two parameters and obviating the need for sophisticated numerical techniques for its solution, the semi-theoretical LPM generally predicts the temperature evolution similarly or slightly better than the EBM. Hence, this study has provided a validated, simple model for pharmaceutical engineers to simulate the temperature evolution during the nanomilling process, which will help to set proper process controls for thermally labile drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pharmaceutical Technology)
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Review
Biomedicine Innovations and Its Nanohydrogel Classifications
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122839 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 572
Abstract
As one of the most cutting-edge and promising polymer crosslinked network nanoparticle systems. Polymer nano-sized hydrogels (nanogels) have been a hot topic in the biomedical field over the last few decades. Due to their unique characteristics, which include their relatively high drug encapsulation [...] Read more.
As one of the most cutting-edge and promising polymer crosslinked network nanoparticle systems. Polymer nano-sized hydrogels (nanogels) have been a hot topic in the biomedical field over the last few decades. Due to their unique characteristics, which include their relatively high drug encapsulation efficiency, ease of preparation, high tunability, low toxicity, high stability in serum and responsive behavior to a range of stimuli to facilitate drug release. Nanogels are thought to be the next generation of drug delivery systems that can completely change the way that drug delivery systems have an impact on patients’ lives. Nanogels have demonstrated significant potential in a variety of fields, including chemotherapy, diagnosis, organ targeting, and delivery of bioactive molecules of different dimensions. However, the lack of substantial clinical data from nanogels becomes one of the major barriers to translating the nanogel concept into a practical therapeutic application for many disease conditions. In addition, nanogel safety profiles have been the major concern that hinders it advancement to the clinical trial phase. This review aims to emphasize the unique properties of nanogels as delivery systems for a variety of bioactive molecules over other nano-delivery systems. Also, this review attempts to give insight into the recent progress in nanogels as a carrier in the field of nanomedicine to overcome complex biological barriers. Relevant scientific data and clinical rationale for the development and the potential use of nanogel as a carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions are discussed. Finally, the concluding points of this review highlight the importance of understanding the long-term toxicity profile of nanogel within the biological system to fully understand their biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery)
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Article
Chemical Attachment of 5-Nitrosalicylaldimine Motif to Silatrane Resulting in an Organic–Inorganic Structure with High Medicinal Significance
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122838 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Two chemical motifs of interest for medicinal chemistry, silatrane as 1-(3-aminopropyl) silatrane (SIL M), and nitro group attached in position 5 to salicylaldehyde, are coupled in a new structure, 1-(3-{[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)methylidene]amino}propyl)silatrane (SIL-BS), through an azomethine moiety, also known as a versatile pharmacophore. The high [...] Read more.
Two chemical motifs of interest for medicinal chemistry, silatrane as 1-(3-aminopropyl) silatrane (SIL M), and nitro group attached in position 5 to salicylaldehyde, are coupled in a new structure, 1-(3-{[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)methylidene]amino}propyl)silatrane (SIL-BS), through an azomethine moiety, also known as a versatile pharmacophore. The high purity isolated compound was structurally characterized by an elemental, spectral, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Given the structural premises for being a biologically active compound, different specific techniques and protocols have been used to evaluate their in vitro hydrolytic stability in simulated physiological conditions, the cytotoxicity on two cancer cell lines (HepG2 and MCF7), and protein binding ability—with a major role in drug ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion), in parallel with those of the SIL M. While the latter had a good biocompatibility, the nitro-silatrane derivative, SIL-BS, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity on HepG2 and MCF7 cell lines, performance assigned, among others, to the known capacity of the nitro group to promote a specific cytotoxicity by a “activation by reduction” mechanism. Both compounds exhibited increased bio- and muco-adhesiveness, which can favor an optimized therapeutic effect by increased drug permeation and residence time in tumor location. Additional benefits of these compounds have been demonstrated by their antimicrobial activity on several fungi and bacteria species. Molecular docking computations on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and MPRO COVID-19 protease demonstrated their potential in the development of new drugs for combined therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pharmaceutical Technology)
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Article
Cytotoxicity towards Breast Cancer Cells of Pluronic F-127/Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Containing Nitric Oxide Donor and Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cisplatin
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122837 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
The incorporation of both nitric oxide (NO) donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO) and silica nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin (SiO2@CisPt NPs) into a polymeric matrix represents a suitable approach to creating a drug-delivery system with sustained and localized drug release against tumor cells. Herein, [...] Read more.
The incorporation of both nitric oxide (NO) donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO) and silica nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin (SiO2@CisPt NPs) into a polymeric matrix represents a suitable approach to creating a drug-delivery system with sustained and localized drug release against tumor cells. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity evaluation of Pluronic F-127/hyaluronic acid hydrogel containing GSNO and SiO2@CisPt NPs against breast cancer cells. SiO2@CisPt NPs were successfully synthesized, revealing a spherical morphology with an average size of 158 ± 20 nm. Both GSNO and SiO2@CisPt NPs were incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic/hyaluronic hydrogel for sustained and localized release of both NO and cisplatin. The kinetics of NO release from a hydrogel matrix revealed spontaneous and sustained release of NO at the millimolar range for 24 h. The MTT assay showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the hydrogel. The combination of GSNO and SiO2@CisPt incorporated into a polymeric matrix decreased the cell viability 20% more than the hydrogel containing only GSNO or SiO2@CisPt. At 200 µg/mL, this combination led to a critical cell viability of 30%, indicating a synergistic effect between GSNO and SiO2@CisPt NPs in the hydrogel matrix, and, therefore, highlighting the potential application of this drug-delivery system in the field of biomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomedicine and Nanosensors in Cancer Therapies)
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Article
Clay-Based Hydrogels as Drug Delivery Vehicles of Curcumin Nanocrystals for Topical Application
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122836 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 760
Abstract
The poor water solubility of a significant number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) remains one of the main challenges in the drug development process, causing low bioavailability and therapeutic failure of drug candidates. Curcumin is a well-known Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV [...] Read more.
The poor water solubility of a significant number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) remains one of the main challenges in the drug development process, causing low bioavailability and therapeutic failure of drug candidates. Curcumin is a well-known Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV drug, characterized by lipophilicity and low permeability, which hampers topical bioavailability. Given these premises, the aim of this work was the design and the development of curcumin nanocrystals and their incorporation into natural inorganic hydrogels for topical application. Curcumin nanocrystals were manufactured by the wet ball milling technique and then loaded in clay-based hydrogels. Bentonite and/or palygorskite were selected as the inorganic gelling agents. Curcumin nanocrystal-loaded hydrogels were manufactured by means of a homogenization process and characterized with respect to their chemico-physical properties, in vitro release, antioxidant activity and skin permeation. The results highlighted that the presence of bentonite provided an increase of curcumin skin penetration and simultaneously allowed its radical scavenging properties, due to the desirable rheological characteristics, which should guarantee the necessary contact time of the gel with the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue in Honor of Professor Carla Caramella)
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Article
Bioresorbable Nonwoven Patches as Taxane Delivery Systems for Prostate Cancer Treatment
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122835 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males. In the case of locally advanced prostate cancer radical prostatectomy is one of the first-line therapy. However, recurrence after resection of the tumor can appear. Drug-eluting bioresorbable implants acting locally in the area [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males. In the case of locally advanced prostate cancer radical prostatectomy is one of the first-line therapy. However, recurrence after resection of the tumor can appear. Drug-eluting bioresorbable implants acting locally in the area of the tumor or the resection margins, that reduce the risk of recurrence would be advantageous. Electrospinning offers many benefits in terms of local delivery so fiber-forming polyesters and polyestercarbonates which are suitable to be drug-loaded were used in the study to obtain CTX or DTX-loaded electrospun patches for local delivery. After a fast verification step, patches based on the blend of poly(glycolide-ε-caprolactone) and poly(lactide-glycolide) as well as patches obtained with poly(lactide-glycolide- ε-caprolactone) were chosen for long-term study. After three months, 60% of the drug was released from (PGCL/PLGA) + CTX and it was selected for final, anticancer activity analysis with the use of PC-3 and DU145 cells to establish its therapeutic potential. CTX-loaded patches reduced cell growth to 53% and 31% respectively, as compared to drug-free patches. Extracts from drug-free patches showed excellent biocompatibility with the PC-3 cell line. Cabazitaxel-loaded bioresorbable patches are a promising drug delivery system for prostate cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biopharmaceutics)
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Review
Practical Recommendations for the Manipulation of Kinase Inhibitor Formulations to Age-Appropriate Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122834 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Over 75 kinase inhibitors (KIs) have been approved for the treatment of various cancers. KIs are orally administrated but mostly lack pediatric age-appropriate dosage forms or instructions for dose manipulation. This is highly problematic for clinical practice in pediatric oncology, as flexible oral [...] Read more.
Over 75 kinase inhibitors (KIs) have been approved for the treatment of various cancers. KIs are orally administrated but mostly lack pediatric age-appropriate dosage forms or instructions for dose manipulation. This is highly problematic for clinical practice in pediatric oncology, as flexible oral formulations are essential to individually set dosages and to adjust it to a child’s swallowability. Most KIs are poorly soluble, categorized in Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II or IV, and improperly manipulating the KI formulation can alter pharmacokinetics and jeopardize KI drug safety and efficacy. Therefore, the goals of this review were to provide practical recommendations for manipulating the formulation of the 15 most frequently used KIs in pediatric oncology (i.e., bosutinib, cabozantinib, cobimetinib, crizotinib, dabrafenib, dasatinib, entrectinib, imatinib, larotrectinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, ruxolitinib, selumetinib, sunitinib and trametinib) based on available literature studies and fundamental drug characteristics and to establish a decision tool that supports decisions regarding formulation manipulation of solid oral dosages of KIs that have been or will be licensed (for adult and/or pediatric cancers) but are not included in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Pediatric Drug Formulations)
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Article
Pharmacogenetic Dose Modeling Based on CYP2C19 Allelic Phenotypes
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122833 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Pharmacogenetic variability in drug metabolism leads to patient vulnerability to side effects and to therapeutic failure. Our purpose was to introduce a systematic statistical methodology to estimate quantitative dose adjustments based on pharmacokinetic differences in pharmacogenetic subgroups, addressing the concerns of sparse data, [...] Read more.
Pharmacogenetic variability in drug metabolism leads to patient vulnerability to side effects and to therapeutic failure. Our purpose was to introduce a systematic statistical methodology to estimate quantitative dose adjustments based on pharmacokinetic differences in pharmacogenetic subgroups, addressing the concerns of sparse data, incomplete information on phenotypic groups, and heterogeneity of study design. Data on psychotropic drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C19 were used as a case study. CYP2C19 activity scores were estimated, while statistically assessing the influence of methodological differences between studies, and used to estimate dose adjustments in genotypic groups. Modeling effects of activity scores in each substance as a population led to prudential predictions of adjustments when few data were available (‘shrinkage’). The best results were obtained with the regularized horseshoe, an innovative Bayesian approach to estimate coefficients viewed as a sample from two populations. This approach was compared to modeling the population of substance as normally distributed, to a more traditional “fixed effects” approach, and to dose adjustments based on weighted means, as in current practice. Modeling strategies were able to assess the influence of study parameters and deliver adjustment levels when necessary, extrapolated to all phenotype groups, as well as their level of uncertainty. In addition, the horseshoe reacted sensitively to small study sizes, and provided conservative estimates of required adjustments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dosing Strategies for Protecting the Vulnerable)
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Review
Recent Advances in the Biomedical Applications of Functionalized Nanogels
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122832 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Nanomaterials have been extensively used in several applications in the past few decades related to biomedicine and healthcare. Among them, nanogels (NGs) have emerged as an important nanoplatform with the properties of both hydrogels and nanoparticles for the controlled/sustained delivery of chemo drugs, [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials have been extensively used in several applications in the past few decades related to biomedicine and healthcare. Among them, nanogels (NGs) have emerged as an important nanoplatform with the properties of both hydrogels and nanoparticles for the controlled/sustained delivery of chemo drugs, nucleic acids, or other bioactive molecules for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In the recent past, significant research efforts have been invested in synthesizing NGs through various synthetic methodologies such as free radical polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer method (RAFT) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), as well as emulsion techniques. With further polymeric functionalizations using activated esters, thiol–ene/yne processes, imines/oximes formation, cycloadditions, nucleophilic addition reactions of isocyanates, ring-opening, and multicomponent reactions were used to obtain functionalized NGs for targeted delivery of drug and other compounds. NGs are particularly intriguing for use in the areas of diagnosis, analytics, and biomedicine due to their nanodimensionality, material characteristics, physiological stability, tunable multi-functionality, and biocompatibility. Numerous NGs with a wide range of functionalities and various external/internal stimuli-responsive modalities have been possible with novel synthetic reliable methodologies. Such continuous development of innovative, intelligent materials with novel characteristics is crucial for nanomedicine for next-generation biomedical applications. This paper reviews the synthesis and various functionalization strategies of NGs with a focus on the recent advances in different biomedical applications of these surface modified/functionalized single-/dual-/multi-responsive NGs, with various active targeting moieties, in the fields of cancer theranostics, immunotherapy, antimicrobial/antiviral, antigen presentation for the vaccine, sensing, wound healing, thrombolysis, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Functional Hydrogels as Drug Delivery Platforms)
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Article
Comparison of the Formulation, Stability and Biological Effects of Hydrophilic Extracts from Black Elder Flowers (Sambucus nigra L.)
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122831 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Elderflower preparations have long been used to treat colds and flu, but their use is undeservedly reduced, and only dried flower teas, less often ethanolic extracts, can be purchased in pharmacies. In the case of homemade teas, the medicinal plant material is extracted [...] Read more.
Elderflower preparations have long been used to treat colds and flu, but their use is undeservedly reduced, and only dried flower teas, less often ethanolic extracts, can be purchased in pharmacies. In the case of homemade teas, the medicinal plant material is extracted with hot water for a relatively short time, thus only a small part of the active substances is extracted. The industrially produced ethanolic extract is rich in active substances, but its use is limited since ethanol in many countries is undesirable and unsuitable for children and geriatric patients. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce extracts from elder flowers using water as extractant and a mixture of water + polyethylene glycol (PEG) 20%, to compare their chemical composition and stability, and to study the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to sustain the viability of C6 glial cells under oxidative stress conditions. The ethanolic extract was used as a standard. Thus, the extract with PEG contained more than two times higher amount of total phenolics (PC) than the aqueous one, and the stability at 6–8 °C was comparable to the stability of ethanolic extract. All three extracts showed an antioxidant effect in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. However, only the PEG containing extract (at 20–40 µg/mL PC) was the most effective in reducing the intracellular level of ROS and sustaining the viability of glial cells. The results suggest that the co-solvent PEG increases the yield of phenolics in the extract, prolongs the stability, and enhances positive biological effects. Full article
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Article
Nanoparticles Obtained from Zein for Encapsulation of Mesalazine
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122830 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
We encapsulated MSZ in zein nanoparticles (NP-ZN) using a desolvation method followed by drying in a mini spray dryer. These nanoparticles exhibited a size of 266.6 ± 52 nm, IPD of 0.14 ± 1.1 and zeta potential of −36.4 ± 1.5 mV, suggesting [...] Read more.
We encapsulated MSZ in zein nanoparticles (NP-ZN) using a desolvation method followed by drying in a mini spray dryer. These nanoparticles exhibited a size of 266.6 ± 52 nm, IPD of 0.14 ± 1.1 and zeta potential of −36.4 ± 1.5 mV, suggesting colloidal stability. Quantification using HPLC showed a drug-loaded of 43.8 µg/mg. SEM demonstrated a spherical morphology with a size variation from 220 to 400 nm. A FTIR analysis did not show drug spectra in the NPs in relation to the physical mixture, which suggests drug encapsulation without changing its chemical structure. A TGA analysis showed thermal stability up to 300 °C. In vitro release studies demonstrated gastroresistance and a sustained drug release at pH 7.4 (97.67 ± 0.32%) in 120 h. The kinetic model used for the release of MSZ from the NP-ZN in a pH 1.2 medium was the Fickian diffusion, in a pH 6.8 medium it was the Peppas–Sahlin model with the polymeric relaxation mechanism and in a pH 7.4 medium it was the Korsmeyer–Peppas model with the Fickian release mechanism, or “Case I”. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in the CT26.WT cell line showed no basal cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. The NP-ZN showed to be a promising vector for the sustained release of MSZ in the colon by oral route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in the Application of Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery)
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Article
Design, Synthesis and In Vitro Investigation of Cabozantinib-Based PROTACs to Target c-Met Kinase
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122829 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
(1) Background: This investigation aimed at developing a series of c-Met-targeting cabozantinib-based PROTACs. (2) Methods: Purification of intermediate and target compounds was performed using column chromatography, in vitro antiproliferation activity was measured using a standard MTT assay and a c-Met degradation assay was [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This investigation aimed at developing a series of c-Met-targeting cabozantinib-based PROTACs. (2) Methods: Purification of intermediate and target compounds was performed using column chromatography, in vitro antiproliferation activity was measured using a standard MTT assay and a c-Met degradation assay was performed via the immunoblotting technique. (3) Results: Several compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity towards different cell lines of breast cancer (T47D, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, HCC1954 and MCF7) at the same level as parent cabozantinib and 7-demethyl cabozantinib. Two target conjugates, bearing a VHL-ligand as an E3-ligase binding moiety and glycol-based linkers, exhibited the effective inhibition of c-Met phosphorylation and an ability to decrease the level of c-Met in HCC1954 cells at micromolar concentrations. (4) Conclusions: Two compounds exhibit c-Met inhibition activity in the nanomolar range and can be considered as PROTAC molecules due to their ability to decrease the total level of c-Met in HCC1954 cells. The structures of the offered compounds can be used as starting points for further evaluation of cabozantinib-based PROTACs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biopharmaceutics)
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Article
Solubility Characteristics of Acetaminophen and Phenacetin in Binary Mixtures of Aqueous Organic Solvents: Experimental and Deep Machine Learning Screening of Green Dissolution Media
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122828 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients is a mandatory physicochemical characteristic in pharmaceutical practice. However, the number of potential solvents and their mixtures prevents direct measurements of all possible combinations for finding environmentally friendly, operational and cost-effective solubilizers. That is why support from [...] Read more.
The solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients is a mandatory physicochemical characteristic in pharmaceutical practice. However, the number of potential solvents and their mixtures prevents direct measurements of all possible combinations for finding environmentally friendly, operational and cost-effective solubilizers. That is why support from theoretical screening seems to be valuable. Here, a collection of acetaminophen and phenacetin solubility data in neat and binary solvent mixtures was used for the development of a nonlinear deep machine learning model using new intuitive molecular descriptors derived from COSMO-RS computations. The literature dataset was augmented with results of new measurements in aqueous binary mixtures of 4-formylmorpholine, DMSO and DMF. The solubility values back-computed with the developed ensemble of neural networks are in perfect agreement with the experimental data, which enables the extensive screening of many combinations of solvents not studied experimentally within the applicability domain of the trained model. The final predictions were presented not only in the form of the set of optimal hyperparameters but also in a more intuitive way by the set of parameters of the Jouyban–Acree equation often used in the co-solvency domain. This new and effective approach is easily extendible to other systems, enabling the fast and reliable selection of candidates for new solvents and directing the experimental solubility screening of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Enhancing the Bioavailability of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Editorial
Special Issue: Tissue Engineered Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Systems
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122827 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Current advances in biomaterials processing and engineering for drug delivery have allowed interesting progressed in biomedical field [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Engineered Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Systems)
Article
Protein Modification Employing Non-Canonical Amino Acids to Prepare SUMOylation Detecting Bioconjugates
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122826 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Protein modification with non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) represents a useful technology to afford homogenous samples of bioconjugates with site-specific modification. This technique can be directly applied to the detection of aberrant SUMOylation patterns, which are often indicative of disease states. Modified SUMO-trapping proteins, [...] Read more.
Protein modification with non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) represents a useful technology to afford homogenous samples of bioconjugates with site-specific modification. This technique can be directly applied to the detection of aberrant SUMOylation patterns, which are often indicative of disease states. Modified SUMO-trapping proteins, consisting of a catalytically inactive ULP1 fragment (UTAG) fused to the maltose-binding protein MBP, are useful reagents for the binding and labeling of SUMOylated proteins. Mutation of this UTAG fusion protein to facilitate amber suppression technologies for the genetic incorporation of ncAAs was assessed to provide a functional handle for modification. Ultimately, two sites in the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion were identified as ideal for incorporation and bioconjugation without perturbation to the SUMO-trapping ability of the UTAG protein. This functionality was then employed to label SUMOylated proteins in HeLa cells and demonstrate their enrichment in the nucleus. This modified UTAG-MBP-ncAA protein has far-reaching applications for both diagnostics and therapeutics. Full article
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Review
Nano and Microemulsions for the Treatment of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: An Efficient Approach to Improve Solubility, Brain Bioavailability and Therapeutic Efficacy
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122825 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Most drugs used for the treatment of depression, anxiety and related disorders have low absorption, high metabolism, low brain targeting and/or low water solubility, which can make it hard to formulate them at high strength and can also lead to decreased bioavailability. Incorporating [...] Read more.
Most drugs used for the treatment of depression, anxiety and related disorders have low absorption, high metabolism, low brain targeting and/or low water solubility, which can make it hard to formulate them at high strength and can also lead to decreased bioavailability. Incorporating these drugs into nanometric emulsions can solve these issues. Hence, the aim of the present review was to assess the potential of nano and micro emulsions for the delivery of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. The results from several studies showed that nanometric emulsions were able to increase drug strength up to 20,270-fold (compared to aqueous solubility). Moreover, in general, the formulations showed droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, viscosity, osmolality, pH, in vitro drug release and ex vivo drug permeation as adequate for the intended effect and administration route. In vivo animal pharmacokinetic experiments showed that nanometric emulsions improved systemic drug bioavailability and/or brain targeting, and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies showed that they had antidepressant and/or anxiolytic effects, also being apparently safe. Hence, the current review provides proof of the potential of nano and microemulsions for improving solubilization and increasing the overall bioavailability of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic drugs, providing evidence of a possible useful strategy for future therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Formulations of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Article
Engineering of a Fully Human Anti-MUC-16 Antibody and Evaluation as a PET Imaging Agent
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122824 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Antibodies that recognize cancer biomarkers, such as MUC16, can be used as vehicles to deliver contrast agents (imaging) or cytotoxic payloads (therapy) to the site of tumors. MUC16 is overexpressed in 80% of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 65% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas [...] Read more.
Antibodies that recognize cancer biomarkers, such as MUC16, can be used as vehicles to deliver contrast agents (imaging) or cytotoxic payloads (therapy) to the site of tumors. MUC16 is overexpressed in 80% of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 65% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), where effective ‘theranostic’ probes are much needed. This work aims to develop fully human antibodies against MUC16 and evaluate them as potential immuno-PET imaging probes for detecting ovarian and pancreatic cancers. We developed a fully human monoclonal antibody, M16Ab, against MUC16 using phage display. M16Ab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-DFO and radiolabeled with 89Zr. 89Zr-DFO-M16Ab was then evaluated for binding specificity and affinity using flow cytometry. In vivo evaluation of 89Zr-DFO-M16Ab was performed by microPET/CT imaging at different time points at 24–120 h post injection (p.i.) and ex vivo biodistribution studies in mice bearing MUC16-expressing OVCAR3, SKOV3 (ovarian) and SW1990 (pancreatic) xenografts. 89Zr-DFO-M16Ab bound specifically to MUC16-expressing cancer cells with an EC50 of 10nM. 89Zr-DFO-M16Ab was stable in serum and showed specific uptake and retention in tumor xenografts even after 120 h p.i. (microPET/CT) with tumor-to-blood ratios > 43 for the SW1990 xenograft. Specific tumor uptake was observed for SW1990/OVCAR3 xenografts but not in MUC16-negative SKOV3 xenografts. Pharmacokinetic study shows a relatively short distribution (t1/2α) and elimination half-life (t1/2ß) of 4.4 h and 99 h, respectively. In summary, 89Zr-DFO-M16Ab is an effective non-invasive imaging probe for ovarian and pancreatic cancers and shows promise for further development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Radiopharmacy)
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Article
Blockade of Cholecystokinin Type 2 Receptors Prevents the Onset of Vincristine-Induced Neuropathy in Mice
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122823 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Vincristine (VCR) is responsible for the onset of the VCR-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN), associated with neuropathic pain. Several reports have strongly linked the cholecystokinin type 2 receptor (CCK2R) to nociceptive modulation. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the effect of CCK2R blockade on [...] Read more.
Vincristine (VCR) is responsible for the onset of the VCR-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN), associated with neuropathic pain. Several reports have strongly linked the cholecystokinin type 2 receptor (CCK2R) to nociceptive modulation. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the effect of CCK2R blockade on the onset of VIPN, as well as its interaction on VCR anticancer efficacy. VCR was administrated in mice for 8 days (100 µg/kg/d, i.p.). Transcriptomic analysis of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was performed at day 7 in VCR and control mice. Proglumide (30 mg/kg/d), a CCK1R and CCK2R antagonist, and Ly225910 (1 mg/kg/d), a selective CCK2R antagonist, were administrated one day before and during VCR treatment. Tactile sensitivity was assessed during treatments. Immunofluorescence and morphological analyses were performed on the skin, DRG and sciatic nerve at day 7. The cytotoxicity of VCR in combination with proglumide/Ly225910 was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. Cck2r was highly upregulated in the DRG of VCR mice. Proglumide accelerated the recovery of normal sensitivity, while Ly225910 totally prevented the onset of allodynia and nerve injuries induced by VCR. Proglumide or Ly225910 in combination with VCR did not affect the cytotoxicity of VCR. Targeting CCK2R could therefore be an effective strategy to prevent the onset of VIPN. Full article
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Review
Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Targets and Delivery Vehicles for Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122822 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles that are released from cells into the extracellular space both under pathological and normal conditions. It is now well established that cancer cells secrete more EVs compared to non-cancerous cells and that, captivatingly, several proteins that are involved [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles that are released from cells into the extracellular space both under pathological and normal conditions. It is now well established that cancer cells secrete more EVs compared to non-cancerous cells and that, captivatingly, several proteins that are involved in EV biogenesis and secretion are upregulated in various tumours. Recent studies have revealed that EVs facilitate the interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment and play a substantial role in the growth of tumours. As EVs are involved in several aspects of cancer progression including angiogenesis, organotropism, pre-metastatic niche formation, fostering of metastasis, and chemoresistance, inhibiting the release of EVs from cancer and the surrounding tumour microenvironment cells has been proposed as an ideal strategy to treat cancer and associated paraneoplastic syndromes. Lately, EVs have shown immense benefits in preclinical settings as a novel drug delivery vehicle. This review provides a brief overview of the role of EVs in various hallmarks of cancer, focusing on (i) strategies to treat cancer by therapeutically targeting the release of tumour-derived EVs and (ii) EVs as valuable drug delivery vehicles. Furthermore, we also outline the drawbacks of the existing anti-cancer treatments and the future prospective of EV-based therapeutics. Full article
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Article
IFN-α/β Signaling Is Required for CDG-Mediated CTL Generation and B Lymphocyte Activation
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122821 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Among cyclic di-nucleotides (CDN), both cyclic di-AMP (CDA) and di-GMP (CDG) are promising adjuvants and immune modulators. These molecules are not only able to induce profuse antibody production but also predominant T helper 1 and cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTL) responses, which enable [...] Read more.
Among cyclic di-nucleotides (CDN), both cyclic di-AMP (CDA) and di-GMP (CDG) are promising adjuvants and immune modulators. These molecules are not only able to induce profuse antibody production but also predominant T helper 1 and cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTL) responses, which enable their use for vaccination against intracellular pathogens as well as in cancer immunotherapy. However, for their successful translation into the clinic, a comprehensive understanding of CDN mode of action is still essential. Consistent with evidence in the literature, we show here that IFN-α/β (Type I IFN) is crucial for CDG-mediated B cell activation. We recently determined the key role of type I IFN signaling for CDA-mediated enhancement of immunogenicity. Based on the biological activities of type I IFN, in this study, we hypothesized that it might also be required for CTL induction by CDG. We disclose here the mode of action of type I IFN signaling in CDG-mediated cross-presentation and subsequent CTL generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Adjuvant Technologies for Next-Generation Vaccines)
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Review
Recent Advancements in Drug Delivery of Sinomenine, A Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122820 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Sinomenine (SIN) is a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from the dried plant root and stem of Sinomenium acutum (Thumb.) Rehd.et Wils, which shows potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. As a transforming disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, SIN has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis over twenty-five [...] Read more.
Sinomenine (SIN) is a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from the dried plant root and stem of Sinomenium acutum (Thumb.) Rehd.et Wils, which shows potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. As a transforming disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, SIN has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis over twenty-five years in China. In recent years, SIN is also in development for use against other disorders, including colitis, pain, traumatic brain injury, and uveitis. However, its commercial hydrochloride (SIN-HCl) shows low oral bioavailability and certain allergic reactions in patients, due to the release of histamine. Therefore, a large number of pharmaceutical strategies have been explored to address these liabilities, such as prolonging release behaviors, enhancing skin permeation and adsorption for transdermal delivery, targeted SIN delivery using new material or conjugates, and co-amorphous technology. This review discusses these different delivery strategies and approaches employed to overcome the limitations of SIN for its efficient delivery, in order to achieve improved bioavailability and reduced side effects. The potential advantages and limitations of SIN delivery strategies are elaborated along with discussions of potential future SIN drug development strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physico Chemical Profiling Pharmaceutics: Solubility and Permeability)
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Article
Development and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Acetylsalicylic Acid Dry Powder for Pulmonary Administration
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122819 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Aspirin is an historic blockbuster product, and it has been proposed in a wide range of formulas. Due to exacerbation risks, the pulmonary route has been seldom considered as an alternative to conventional treatments. Only recently, owing to overt advantages, inhalable acetylsalicylic acid [...] Read more.
Aspirin is an historic blockbuster product, and it has been proposed in a wide range of formulas. Due to exacerbation risks, the pulmonary route has been seldom considered as an alternative to conventional treatments. Only recently, owing to overt advantages, inhalable acetylsalicylic acid dry powders (ASA DPI) began to be considered as an option. In this work, we developed a novel highly performing inhalable ASA DPI using a nano spray-drying technique and leucine as an excipient and evaluated its pharmacokinetics compared with oral administration. The formulation obtained showed remarkable respirability and quality features. Serum and lung ASA DPI profiles showed faster presentation in blood and higher retention compared with oral administration. The dry powder was superior to the DPI suspension. The relative bioavailability in serum and lungs claimed superiority of ASA DPI over oral administration, notwithstanding a fourfold lower pulmonary dose. The obtained ASA DPI formulation shows promising features for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious lung pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Delivery and Controlled Release)
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Review
Improved Topical Drug Delivery: Role of Permeation Enhancers and Advanced Approaches
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122818 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 871
Abstract
The delivery of drugs via transdermal routes is an attractive approach due to ease of administration, bypassing of the first-pass metabolism, and the large skin surface area. However, a major drawback is an inability to surmount the skin’s stratum corneum (SC) layer. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The delivery of drugs via transdermal routes is an attractive approach due to ease of administration, bypassing of the first-pass metabolism, and the large skin surface area. However, a major drawback is an inability to surmount the skin’s stratum corneum (SC) layer. Therefore, techniques reversibly modifying the stratum corneum have been a classical approach. Surmounting the significant barrier properties of the skin in a well-organised, momentary, and harmless approach is still challenging. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) with higher activity are associated with certain side effects restricting their advancement in transdermal drug delivery. Furthermore, complexity in the interaction of CPEs with the skin has led to difficulty in elucidating the mechanism of action. Nevertheless, CPEs-aided transdermal drug delivery will accomplish its full potential due to advancements in analytical techniques, synthetic chemistry, and combinatorial studies. This review focused on techniques such as drug–vehicle interaction, vesicles and their analogues, and novel CPEs such as lipid synthesis inhibitors (LSIs), cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and ionic liquids (ILs). In addition, different types of microneedles, including 3D-printed microneedles, have been focused on in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Drug Delivery: Innovative Controlled Release Systems)
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Article
Deferasirox Nanosuspension Loaded Dissolving Microneedles for Intradermal Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122817 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Microneedles are minimally invasive systems that can deliver drugs intradermally without pain and bleeding and can advantageously replace the hypodermal needles and oral routes of delivery. Deferasirox (DFS) is an iron chelator employed in several ailments where iron overload plays an important role [...] Read more.
Microneedles are minimally invasive systems that can deliver drugs intradermally without pain and bleeding and can advantageously replace the hypodermal needles and oral routes of delivery. Deferasirox (DFS) is an iron chelator employed in several ailments where iron overload plays an important role in disease manifestation. In this study, DFS was formulated into a nanosuspension (NSs) through wet media milling employing PVA as a stabilizer and successfully loaded in polymeric dissolving microneedles (DMNs). The release studies for DFS-NS clearly showed a threefold increased dissolution rate compared to pure DFS. The mechanical characterization of DFS-NS-DMNs revealed that the system was sufficiently strong for efficacious skin penetration. Optical coherence tomography images confirmed an insertion of up to 378 µm into full-thickness porcine skin layers. The skin deposition studies showed 60% drug deposition from NS-DMN, which was much higher than from the DFS-NS transdermal patch (DFS-NS-TP) (without needles) or pure DFS-DMNs. Moreover, DFS-NS without DMNs did not deposit well inside the skin, indicating that DMNs played an important role in effectively delivering drugs inside the skin. Therefore, it is evident from the findings that loading DFS-NS into novel DMN devices can effectively deliver DFS transdermally. Full article
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