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Article

A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021)

1
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2
Centre de Sanitat Avícola de Catalunya i Aragó (CESAC), 43206 Reus, Spain
3
Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Schachner and Michael Hess
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112170
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 25 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
A surge in fowl adenovirus (FAdV) causing inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreaks has occurred in several countries in the last two decades. In Spain, a sharp increase in case numbers in broilers and broiler breeder pullets arose since 2011, which prompted the vaccination of breeders in some regions. Our retrospective study of IBH cases in Spain from 2011 to 2021 revealed that most cases were reported in broilers (92.21%) and were caused by serotypes FAdV-8b and -11, while cases in broiler breeder pullets were caused by serotypes FAdV-2, -11, and -8b. Vertical transmission was the main route of infection, although horizontal transmission likely happened in some broiler cases. Despite the inconsistent and heterogeneous use of vaccines among regions and over time, the number of cases mirrored the use of vaccines in the country. While IBH outbreaks were recorded year-long, significantly more cases occurred during the cooler and rainier months. The geographic distribution suggested a widespread incidence of IBH and revealed the importance of a highly integrated system. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of FAdV infection dynamics under field conditions and reiterate the importance of surveillance, serological monitoring of breeders, and vaccination of breeders against circulating serotypes to protect progenies. View Full-Text
Keywords: fowl adenovirus; inclusion body hepatitis; Spain; epidemiology; broilers; broiler breeder pullets; phylogenetic analysis fowl adenovirus; inclusion body hepatitis; Spain; epidemiology; broilers; broiler breeder pullets; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bertran, K.; Blanco, A.; Antilles, N.; Nofrarías, M.; Valle, R.M.; Cobos, À.; Ramis, A.; Biarnés, M.; Majó, N. A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021). Viruses 2021, 13, 2170. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112170

AMA Style

Bertran K, Blanco A, Antilles N, Nofrarías M, Valle RM, Cobos À, Ramis A, Biarnés M, Majó N. A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021). Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2170. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112170

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bertran, Kateri, Angela Blanco, Noelia Antilles, Miquel Nofrarías, Rosa M. Valle, Àlex Cobos, Antonio Ramis, Mar Biarnés, and Natàlia Majó. 2021. "A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021)" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2170. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112170

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