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Article

Successive Inoculations of Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) and Swine H1N2 Influenza Virus Suggest a Mutual Interference between the Two Viral Infections

1
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Swine Virology Immunology Unit, BP53, 22440 Ploufragan, France
2
University of Rennes 1, Cité Internationale, 1 Place Paul Ricoeur, CS 54417, 35044 Rennes, France
3
ANSES, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, SPF Pig Production and Experimentation Unit, BP53, 22440 Ploufragan, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112169
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 26 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza A virus (swIAV) are major pathogens of the porcine respiratory disease complex, but little is known on their interaction in super-infected pigs. In this study, we investigated clinical, virological and immunological outcomes of successive infections with PRRSV-1 and H1N2 swIAV. Twenty-four specific pathogen-free piglets were distributed into four groups and inoculated either with PRRSV at study day (SD) 0, or with swIAV at SD8, or with PRRSV and swIAV one week apart at SD0 and SD8, respectively, or mock-inoculated. In PRRSV/swIAV group, the clinical signs usually observed after swIAV infection were attenuated while higher levels of anti-swIAV antibodies were measured in lungs. Concurrently, PRRSV multiplication in lungs was significantly affected by swIAV infection, whereas the cell-mediated immune response specific to PRRSV was detected earlier in blood, as compared to PRRSV group. Moreover, levels of interferon (IFN)-α measured from SD9 in the blood of super-infected pigs were lower than those measured in the swIAV group, but higher than in the PRRSV group at the same time. Correlation analyses suggested an important role of IFN-α in the two-way interference highlighted between both viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine influenza A virus; Betaarterivirus suid 1; porcine respiratory disease complex; virus-virus interaction; viral interference; innate and adaptive immune responses; inflammatory response; interferon; super-infection swine influenza A virus; Betaarterivirus suid 1; porcine respiratory disease complex; virus-virus interaction; viral interference; innate and adaptive immune responses; inflammatory response; interferon; super-infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bougon, J.; Deblanc, C.; Renson, P.; Quéguiner, S.; Gorin, S.; Mahé, S.; Le Dimna, M.; Barbier, N.; Paboeuf, F.; Simon, G.; Bourry, O. Successive Inoculations of Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) and Swine H1N2 Influenza Virus Suggest a Mutual Interference between the Two Viral Infections. Viruses 2021, 13, 2169. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112169

AMA Style

Bougon J, Deblanc C, Renson P, Quéguiner S, Gorin S, Mahé S, Le Dimna M, Barbier N, Paboeuf F, Simon G, Bourry O. Successive Inoculations of Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) and Swine H1N2 Influenza Virus Suggest a Mutual Interference between the Two Viral Infections. Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2169. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112169

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bougon, Juliette, Céline Deblanc, Patricia Renson, Stéphane Quéguiner, Stéphane Gorin, Sophie Mahé, Mireille Le Dimna, Nicolas Barbier, Frédéric Paboeuf, Gaëlle Simon, and Olivier Bourry. 2021. "Successive Inoculations of Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) and Swine H1N2 Influenza Virus Suggest a Mutual Interference between the Two Viral Infections" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2169. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112169

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