Avian Adenovirus Infections

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 19598

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Poultry Vaccines (IPOV) at the Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
Interests: avian adenoviruses; vaccinology; molecular epidemiology; proteomics

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Guest Editor
Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
Interests: avian adenoviruses; poultry diseases; vaccinology; advanced diagnostics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Avian adenoviruses are a very diverse group of viruses within the Adenoviridae, infecting numerous bird species with and without clinical symptoms. Though they were discovered in the mid of the last century, knowledge about avian adenoviruses is still limited. In recent years, diseases caused by certain avian adenoviruses in poultry, formerly reported on a more occasional basis, have become endemic in numerous countries. In addition, new viruses and diseases have been described. This has enforced basic studies on the pathogenesis of these diseases and on the development of vaccines. Furthermore, rapidly advancing sequencing technologies have enabled the continuous detection of new adenoviruses in wild birds, revealing hitherto unknown evolutionary and epidemiological networks. This Special Issue aims to provide a multi-faceted perspective on various aspects of avian adenoviruses, ranging from epidemiology and pathogenesis to virus–host interactions and vaccination strategies to prevent and minimize losses in poultry. Studies on the characteristics of avian adenoviruses, unraveled in vitro, are also of interest.

Dr. Anna Schachner
Prof. Dr. Michael Hess
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • adenovirus
  • birds
  • poultry
  • pathogenicity
  • immunology
  • genome contents

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Avian Adenoviruses
by Anna Schachner and Michael Hess
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040680 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
For years, research on avian adenoviruses, here fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs), received less attention, mainly due to limited clinical relevance in poultry production [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)

Research

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14 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
High Phenotypic Variation between an In Vitro-Passaged Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 1 (FAdV-1) and Its Virulent Progenitor Strain despite Almost Complete Sequence Identity of the Whole Genomes
by Beatrice Grafl, Anna Schachner and Michael Hess
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020358 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Adenoviral gizzard erosion is an emerging disease with negative impact on health and production of chickens. In this study, we compared in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1), attenuated by 53 consecutive passages in primary chicken embryo [...] Read more.
Adenoviral gizzard erosion is an emerging disease with negative impact on health and production of chickens. In this study, we compared in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1), attenuated by 53 consecutive passages in primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cell cultures (11/7127-AT), with the virulent strain (11/7127-VT). Whole genome analysis revealed near-complete sequence identity between the strains. However, a length polymorphism in a non-coding adenine repeat sequence (11/7127-AT: 11 instead of 9) immediately downstream of the hexon open reading frame was revealed. One-step growth kinetics showed delayed multiplication of 11/7127-AT together with significantly lower titers in cell culture (up to 4 log10 difference), indicating reduced replication efficiency in vitro. In vivo pathogenicity and immunogenicity were determined in day-old specific pathogen-free layer chicks inoculated orally with the respective viruses. In contrast to birds infected with 11/7127-VT, birds infected with 11/7127-AT did not exhibit body weight loss or severe pathological lesions in the gizzard. Virus detection rates, viral load in organs and virus excretion were significantly lower in birds inoculated with 11/7127-AT. Throughout the experimental period, these birds did not develop measurable neutralizing antibodies, prevalent in birds in response to 11/7127-VT infection. Differences in pathogenicity between the virulent FAdV-1 and the attenuated strain could not be correlated to prominently discriminate genomic features. We conclude that differential in vitro growth profiles indicate that attenuation is linked to modulation of viral replication during interaction of the virus with the host cells. Thus, hosts would be unable to prevent the rapid replication of virulent FAdV leading to severe tissue damage, a phenomenon broadly applicable to further FAdV serotypes, considering the substantial intra-serotype virulence differences of FAdVs and the variation of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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16 pages, 11954 KiB  
Article
Species Fowl aviadenovirus B Consists of a Single Serotype despite Genetic Distance of FAdV-5 Isolates
by Győző L. Kaján, Anna Schachner, Ákos Gellért and Michael Hess
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020248 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are infectious agents, mainly of chickens, which cause economic losses to the poultry industry. Only a single serotype, namely FAdV-5, constitutes the species Fowl aviadenovirus B (FAdV-B); however, recently, phylogenetic analyses have identified divergent strains of the species, implicating a [...] Read more.
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are infectious agents, mainly of chickens, which cause economic losses to the poultry industry. Only a single serotype, namely FAdV-5, constitutes the species Fowl aviadenovirus B (FAdV-B); however, recently, phylogenetic analyses have identified divergent strains of the species, implicating a more complex scenario and possibly a novel serotype. Therefore, field isolates of the species were collected to investigate the contemporary diversification within FAdV-B, including traditional serotyping. Full genomes of fourteen FAdV-B strains were sequenced and four strains, possessing discriminatory mutations in the antigenic domains, were compared using virus cross-neutralization. Essentially, strains with identical antigenic signatures to that of the first described divergent strain were found in the complete new dataset. While chicken antiserum against FAdV-5 reference strain 340 could not neutralize any of the newly isolated viruses, low homologous/heterologous titer ratios were measured reciprocally. Although they argue against a new serotype, our results indicate the emergence of escape variants in FAdV-B. Charge-influencing amino acid substitutions accounted for only a few mutations between the strains; still, these enabled one-way cross-neutralization only. These findings underline the continued merit of the cross-neutralization test as the gold standard for serotyping, complementary to advancing sequence data, and provide a snapshot of the actual diversity and evolution of species FAdV-B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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19 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Downregulation of Cell Surface Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Expression Is Mediated by the Left-End Transcription Unit of Fowl Adenovirus 9
by Bryan D. Griffin, Juan Carlos Corredor, Yanlong Pei and Éva Nagy
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112211 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules play a critical role in the host’s antiviral response by presenting virus-derived antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), enabling the clearance of virus-infected cells. Human adenoviruses evade CTL-mediated cell lysis, in part, by interfering directly [...] Read more.
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules play a critical role in the host’s antiviral response by presenting virus-derived antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), enabling the clearance of virus-infected cells. Human adenoviruses evade CTL-mediated cell lysis, in part, by interfering directly with the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway through the expression of E3-19K, which binds both MHC-I and the transporter associated with antigen processing protein and sequestering MHC-I within the endoplasmic reticulum. Fowl adenoviruses have no homologues of E3-19K. Here, we show that representative virus isolates of the species Fowl aviadenovirus C, Fowl aviadenovirus D, and Fowl aviadenovirus E downregulate the cell surface expression of MHC-I in chicken hepatoma cells, resulting in 71%, 11%, and 14% of the baseline expression level, respectively, at 12 h post-infection. Furthermore, this work reports that FAdV-9 downregulates cell surface MHC-I through a minimum of two separate mechanisms—a lysosomal-independent mechanism that requires the presence of the fowl adenovirus early 1 (FE1) transcription unit located within the left terminal genomic region between nts 1 and 6131 and a lysosomal-dependent mechanism that does not require the presence of FE1. These results establish a new functional role for the FE1 transcription unit in immune evasion. These studies provide important new information about the immune evasion of FAdVs and will enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis and advance the progress made in next-generation FAdV-based vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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11 pages, 2676 KiB  
Article
A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021)
by Kateri Bertran, Angela Blanco, Noelia Antilles, Miquel Nofrarías, Rosa M. Valle, Àlex Cobos, Antonio Ramis, Mar Biarnés and Natàlia Majó
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112170 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3282
Abstract
A surge in fowl adenovirus (FAdV) causing inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreaks has occurred in several countries in the last two decades. In Spain, a sharp increase in case numbers in broilers and broiler breeder pullets arose since 2011, which prompted the vaccination [...] Read more.
A surge in fowl adenovirus (FAdV) causing inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreaks has occurred in several countries in the last two decades. In Spain, a sharp increase in case numbers in broilers and broiler breeder pullets arose since 2011, which prompted the vaccination of breeders in some regions. Our retrospective study of IBH cases in Spain from 2011 to 2021 revealed that most cases were reported in broilers (92.21%) and were caused by serotypes FAdV-8b and -11, while cases in broiler breeder pullets were caused by serotypes FAdV-2, -11, and -8b. Vertical transmission was the main route of infection, although horizontal transmission likely happened in some broiler cases. Despite the inconsistent and heterogeneous use of vaccines among regions and over time, the number of cases mirrored the use of vaccines in the country. While IBH outbreaks were recorded year-long, significantly more cases occurred during the cooler and rainier months. The geographic distribution suggested a widespread incidence of IBH and revealed the importance of a highly integrated system. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of FAdV infection dynamics under field conditions and reiterate the importance of surveillance, serological monitoring of breeders, and vaccination of breeders against circulating serotypes to protect progenies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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9 pages, 3245 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity of Novel Live Vaccine Based on an Artificial rHN20 Strain against Emerging Fowl Adenovirus 4
by Yu Zhang, Qing Pan, Rongrong Guo, Aijing Liu, Zhuangzhuang Xu, Yulong Gao, Hongyu Cui, Changjun Liu, Xiaole Qi, Yanping Zhang, Kai Li, Li Gao and Xiaomei Wang
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112153 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
In recent years, hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), caused by novel fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), has caused serious economic losses to the poultry industry. Vaccines are important for preventing and controlling HHS. Current FAdV-4 vaccine research and development are mainly focuses on inactivated vaccines and [...] Read more.
In recent years, hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), caused by novel fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), has caused serious economic losses to the poultry industry. Vaccines are important for preventing and controlling HHS. Current FAdV-4 vaccine research and development are mainly focuses on inactivated vaccines and relatively fewer live vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the hexon gene is the key gene responsible for the high pathogenicity of FAdV-4 and constructed a non-pathogenic chimeric virus rHN20 strain based on the emerging FAdV-4. In this study, the immunogenicity of artificially rescued rHN20 was evaluated in chickens using different routes and doses as a live vaccine. The live rHN20 vaccine induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against FAdV-4 and fully protected the immunized chickens against a lethal dose of FAdV-4. Furthermore, immunized chickens showed no clinical symptoms or histopathological changes in the FAdV-4-targeted liver, and the viral load in the tissues of immunized chickens was significantly lower than that of chickens in the challenge control group. Collectively, the live rHN20 vaccine effectively protected our sample against FAdV-4 infection and can be considered a live vaccine candidate for preventing HHS in the poultry industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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Review

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12 pages, 1250 KiB  
Review
Historical Investigation of Fowl Adenovirus Outbreaks in South Korea from 2007 to 2021: A Comprehensive Review
by Jongseo Mo
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112256 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3543
Abstract
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) have long been recognized as critical viral pathogens within the poultry industry, associated with severe economic implications worldwide. This specific group of viruses is responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases in birds, and an increasing occurrence of outbreaks was [...] Read more.
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) have long been recognized as critical viral pathogens within the poultry industry, associated with severe economic implications worldwide. This specific group of viruses is responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases in birds, and an increasing occurrence of outbreaks was observed in the last ten years. Since their first discovery forty years ago in South Korea, twelve antigenically distinct serotypes of fowl adenoviruses have been described. This comprehensive review covers the history of fowl adenovirus outbreaks in South Korea and updates the current epidemiological landscape of serotype diversity and replacement as well as challenges in developing effective broadly protective vaccines. In addition, transitions in the prevalence of dominant fowl adenovirus serotypes from 2007 to 2021, alongside the history of intervention strategies, are brought into focus. Finally, future aspects are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Adenovirus Infections)
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