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Article

Urine and Free Immunoglobulin Light Chains as Analytes for Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Infection

1
Department of Virology, Medicum, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
2
Zentrum für Innere Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, 22547 Hamburg, Germany
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33520 Tampere, Finland
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
5
Virology, Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
6
Veterinary Biosciences, Veterinary Faculty, University of Helsinki, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
7
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090809
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 1 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Rapid point-of-care testing is a megatrend in infectious disease diagnosis. We have introduced a homogeneous immunoassay concept, which is based on the simultaneous binding of antigen and protein L to a given immunoglobulin molecule. The complex formation is detected utilizing time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer between antigen-attached donor and acceptor-labeled protein L, hence the name LFRET. Here, we demonstrate that urine can be used as a sample matrix in LFRET-based serodiagnostics. We studied urine samples collected during the hospitalization and recovery of patients with acute Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) infection. We compared PUUV antibody-specific LFRET signals in urine to those in plasma, and found excellent correlation in the test outcomes The LFRET test from urine was positive in 40/40 patients with acute PUUV infection. PUUV causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, characterized by acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Immunofluorescence and western blotting demonstrated PUUV-IgG and -IgA in urine, however, the presence of intact immunoglobulins did not fully explain the LFRET signals. We purified free light chains (FLCs) from both urine and serum of healthy volunteers and patients with acute PUUV infection, and verified the presence of antigen-specific FLCs. Antigen-specific FLCs provide a new means for non-invasive antibody detection and disease diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: rapid diagnosis; free light chain; hantavirus; serodiagnosis rapid diagnosis; free light chain; hantavirus; serodiagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hepojoki, S.; Kareinen, L.; Strandin, T.; Vaheri, A.; Holthöfer, H.; Mustonen, J.; Mäkelä, S.; Hedman, K.; Vapalahti, O.; Hepojoki, J. Urine and Free Immunoglobulin Light Chains as Analytes for Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Infection. Viruses 2019, 11, 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090809

AMA Style

Hepojoki S, Kareinen L, Strandin T, Vaheri A, Holthöfer H, Mustonen J, Mäkelä S, Hedman K, Vapalahti O, Hepojoki J. Urine and Free Immunoglobulin Light Chains as Analytes for Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Infection. Viruses. 2019; 11(9):809. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hepojoki, Satu, Lauri Kareinen, Tomas Strandin, Antti Vaheri, Harry Holthöfer, Jukka Mustonen, Satu Mäkelä, Klaus Hedman, Olli Vapalahti, and Jussi Hepojoki. 2019. "Urine and Free Immunoglobulin Light Chains as Analytes for Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Infection" Viruses 11, no. 9: 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090809

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