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Aerosol Detection and Transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): What Is the Evidence, and What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

1
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43215, USA
2
Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc., Duluth, GA 30096, USA
3
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
4
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
5
Independent Swine Consultant, Barcelona 08195, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080712
Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
In human and veterinary medicine, there have been multiple reports of pathogens being airborne under experimental and field conditions, highlighting the importance of this transmission route. These studies shed light on different aspects related to airborne transmission such as the capability of pathogens becoming airborne, the ability of pathogens to remain infectious while airborne, the role played by environmental conditions in pathogen dissemination, and pathogen strain as an interfering factor in airborne transmission. Data showing that airborne pathogens originating from an infectious individual or population can infect susceptible hosts are scarce, especially under field conditions. Furthermore, even though disease outbreak investigations have generated important information identifying potential ports of entry of pathogens into populations, these investigations do not necessarily yield clear answers on mechanisms by which pathogens have been introduced into populations. In swine, the aerosol transmission route gained popularity during the late 1990’s as suspicions of airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were growing. Several studies were conducted within the last 15 years contributing to the understanding of this transmission route; however, questions still remain. This paper reviews the current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps related to PRRSV airborne transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); aerosol; airborne; transmission porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); aerosol; airborne; transmission
MDPI and ACS Style

Arruda, A.G.; Tousignant, S.; Sanhueza, J.; Vilalta, C.; Poljak, Z.; Torremorell, M.; Alonso, C.; Corzo, C.A. Aerosol Detection and Transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): What Is the Evidence, and What Are the Knowledge Gaps? Viruses 2019, 11, 712.

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