Next Article in Journal
H-1 Parvovirus as a Cancer-Killing Agent: Past, Present, and Future
Previous Article in Journal
Establishment of a Cell Culture Model of Persistent Flaviviral Infection: Usutu Virus Shows Sustained Replication during Passages and Resistance to Extinction by Antiviral Nucleosides
Open AccessReview

Influenza A in Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review

1
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
2
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
3
BioSystems Networks and Translational Research Center (BioSNTR), Brookings, SD 57007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060561
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
  |  
PDF [1705 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human–animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D. This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past. The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world. Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: ruminants; bovine; cattle outbreaks; Influenza A; host restriction; bovine cell cultures; bovine respiratory disease; bronchopneumonia; epizootic cough; seroprevalence; MDBK cells ruminants; bovine; cattle outbreaks; Influenza A; host restriction; bovine cell cultures; bovine respiratory disease; bronchopneumonia; epizootic cough; seroprevalence; MDBK cells
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sreenivasan, C.C.; Thomas, M.; Kaushik, R.S.; Wang, D.; Li, F. Influenza A in Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review. Viruses 2019, 11, 561.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top