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Open AccessArticle

Co-Infection Patterns in Individual Ixodes scapularis Ticks Reveal Associations between Viral, Eukaryotic and Bacterial Microorganisms

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070388
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
Ixodes scapularis ticks harbor a variety of microorganisms, including eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. Some of these can be transmitted to and cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. Others are not pathogenic, but may impact the ability of the tick to harbor and transmit pathogens. A growing number of studies have examined the influence of bacteria on tick vector competence but the influence of the tick virome remains less clear, despite a surge in the discovery of tick-associated viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun RNA sequencing on 112 individual adult I. scapularis collected in Wisconsin, USA. We characterized the abundance, prevalence and co-infection rates of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms. We identified pairs of tick-infecting microorganisms whose observed co-infection rates were higher or lower than would be expected, or whose RNA levels were positively correlated in co-infected ticks. Many of these co-occurrence and correlation relationships involved two bunyaviruses, South Bay virus and blacklegged tick phlebovirus-1. These viruses were also the most prevalent microorganisms in the ticks we sampled, and had the highest average RNA levels. Evidence of associations between microbes included a positive correlation between RNA levels of South Bay virus and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. These findings contribute to the rationale for experimental studies on the impact of viruses on tick biology and vector competence. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ixodes scapularis; Lyme disease; ticks; vector; metagenomics; tick-borne disease; co-infection; microbiome; virome; microbiota; South Bay virus; Blacklegged tick phlebovirus; bunyavirus; Borrelia burgdorferi; blacklegged tick; mutualism Ixodes scapularis; Lyme disease; ticks; vector; metagenomics; tick-borne disease; co-infection; microbiome; virome; microbiota; South Bay virus; Blacklegged tick phlebovirus; bunyavirus; Borrelia burgdorferi; blacklegged tick; mutualism
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Cross, S.T.; Kapuscinski, M.L.; Perino, J.; Maertens, B.L.; Weger-Lucarelli, J.; Ebel, G.D.; Stenglein, M.D. Co-Infection Patterns in Individual Ixodes scapularis Ticks Reveal Associations between Viral, Eukaryotic and Bacterial Microorganisms. Viruses 2018, 10, 388.

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