Next Article in Journal
Clinical and Molecular Features of Feline Foamy Virus and Feline Leukemia Virus Co-Infection in Naturally-Infected Cats
Previous Article in Journal
Tet-Inducible Production of Infectious Zika Virus from the Full-Length cDNA Clones of African- and Asian-Lineage Strains
Open AccessArticle

Subclinical Infection of Macaques and Baboons with A Baboon Simarterivirus

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53711, USA
2
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, WI 53711, USA.
3
Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 20896, USA
4
Texas Biomedical Research Institute, Southwest National Primate Research Center, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA
5
Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
6
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120701
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Simarteriviruses (Arteriviridae: Simarterivirinae) are commonly found at high titers in the blood of African monkeys but do not cause overt disease in these hosts. In contrast, simarteriviruses cause severe disease in Asian macaques upon accidental or experimental transmission. Here, we sought to better understand the host-dependent drivers of simarterivirus pathogenesis by infecting olive baboons (n = 4) and rhesus monkeys (n = 4) with the simarterivirus Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1). Surprisingly, none of the animals in our study showed signs of disease following SWBV-1 inoculation. Three animals (two rhesus monkeys and one olive baboon) became infected and sustained high levels of SWBV-1 viremia for the duration of the study. The course of SWBV-1 infection was highly predictable: plasma viremia peaked between 1 × 107 and 1 × 108 vRNA copies/mL at 3–10 days post-inoculation, which was followed by a relative nadir and then establishment of a stable set-point between 1 × 106 and 1 × 107 vRNA copies/mL for the remainder of the study (56 days). We characterized cellular and antibody responses to SWBV-1 infection in these animals, demonstrating that macaques and baboons mount similar responses to SWBV-1 infection, yet these responses are ineffective at clearing SWBV-1 infection. SWBV-1 sequencing revealed the accumulation of non-synonymous mutations in a region of the genome that corresponds to an immunodominant epitope in the simarterivirus major envelope glycoprotein GP5, which likely contribute to viral persistence by enabling escape from host antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arteriviridae; simarterivirus; SHFV; simian hemorrhagic fever virus; southwest baboon virus 1; SWBV-1 Arteriviridae; simarterivirus; SHFV; simian hemorrhagic fever virus; southwest baboon virus 1; SWBV-1
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Buechler, C.R.; Semler, M.; Baker, D.A.; Newman, C.; Cornish, J.P.; Chavez, D.; Guerra, B.; Lanford, R.; Brasky, K.; Kuhn, J.H.; Johnson, R.F.; O’Connor, D.H.; Bailey, A.L. Subclinical Infection of Macaques and Baboons with A Baboon Simarterivirus. Viruses 2018, 10, 701.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop