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Viruses 2018, 10(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120676

Influence of Irradiance and Temperature on the Virus MpoV-45T Infecting the Arctic Picophytoplankter Micromonas polaris

1
Department of Marine Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
2
Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Systems Biology, Spanish National Center for Biotechnology (CNB), Calle Darwin, 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Abstract

Arctic marine ecosystems are currently undergoing rapid changes in temperature and light availability. Picophytoplankton, such as Micromonas polaris, are predicted to benefit from such changes. However, little is known about how these environmental changes affect the viruses that exert a strong mortality pressure on these small but omnipresent algae. Here we report on one-step infection experiments, combined with measurements of host physiology and viability, with 2 strains of M. polaris and the virus MpoV-45T under 3 light intensities (5, 60 and 160 μmol quanta m−2 s−1), 2 light period regimes (16:8 and 24:0 h light:dark cycle) and 2 temperatures (3 and 7 °C). Our results show that low light intensity (16:8 h light:dark) delayed the decline in photosynthetic efficiency and cell lysis, while decreasing burst size by 46%. In contrast, continuous light (24:0 h light:dark) shortened the latent period by 5 h for all light intensities, and even increased the maximum virus production rate and burst size under low light (by 157 and 69%, respectively). Higher temperature (7 °C vs 3 °C) led to earlier cell lysis and increased burst size (by 19%), except for the low light conditions. These findings demonstrate the ecological importance of light in combination with temperature as a controlling factor for Arctic phytoplankton host and virus dynamics seasonally, even more so in the light of global warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctic algal viruses; Light intensity; Light regime; Global Climate Change; Virus growth characteristics Arctic algal viruses; Light intensity; Light regime; Global Climate Change; Virus growth characteristics
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Piedade, G.J.; Wesdorp, E.M.; Montenegro-Borbolla, E.; Maat, D.S.; Brussaard, C.P.D. Influence of Irradiance and Temperature on the Virus MpoV-45T Infecting the Arctic Picophytoplankter Micromonas polaris. Viruses 2018, 10, 676.

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