Next Article in Journal
Identification of Diaryl-Quinoline Compounds as Entry Inhibitors of Ebola Virus
Next Article in Special Issue
Global Interactomics Connect Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein NUMA1 to Influenza Virus Maturation
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Irradiance and Temperature on the Virus MpoV-45T Infecting the Arctic Picophytoplankter Micromonas polaris
Previous Article in Special Issue
Communities of Phytoplankton Viruses across the Transition Zone of the St. Lawrence Estuary
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Implications of HIV-1 Nef for “Shock and Kill” Strategies to Eliminate Latent Viral Reservoirs

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 677;
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
PDF [6447 KB, uploaded 30 November 2018]


Finding a cure for HIV is challenging because the virus is able to integrate itself into the host cell genome and establish a silent state, called latency, allowing it to evade antiviral drugs and the immune system. Various “shock and kill” strategies are being explored in attempts to eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. The goal of these approaches is to reactivate latent viruses (“shock”), thereby exposing them to clearance by viral cytopathic effects or immune-mediated responses (“kill”). To date, there has been limited clinical success using these methods. In this review, we highlight various functions of the HIV accessory protein Nef and discuss their double-edged effects that may contribute to the limited effectiveness of current “shock and kill” methods to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs in treated individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; Nef; viral latency; shock and kill HIV-1; Nef; viral latency; shock and kill

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kuang, X.T.; Brockman, M.A. Implications of HIV-1 Nef for “Shock and Kill” Strategies to Eliminate Latent Viral Reservoirs. Viruses 2018, 10, 677.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top