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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Structure and Pod Morphology of Inga edulis Cultivated vs. Wild Populations from the Peruvian Amazon

1
Department of Crop Sciences and Agroforestry, Faculty of Tropical Forest AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507/73, 161 06 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, Escola Superior Agrária, 6001-909 Castelo Branco, Portugal
4
Forest Research Center, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
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Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, 6000-084 Castelo Branco, Portugal
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INIAV, Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, I.P., Av. República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
7
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
8
IVITA, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Jr. Daniel Alcides Carrión 319, Pucallpa, Ucayali 25001, Peru
9
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
10
Students for the Living Amazon o.p.s., Národní obrany 984/18, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad National Agraria de la Selva, Carratera Central km 1.21, Tingo María 10131, Peru
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ONG Students for the Living Amazon Perú, Jr Uruguay, m/d, lote 18, Yarinacocha, Ucayali 25000, Peru
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Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Ucayali, Car. Federico Basadre Km 6.2, Pucallpa, Ucayali 25004, Peru
14
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Forests 2020, 11(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060655
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Phenotypic Variation in Tree Crops Biodiversity)
Research Highlights: This study assesses the genetic diversity and structure of the ice-cream-bean (Inga edulis Mart.; Fabaceae) in wild and cultivated populations from the Peruvian Amazon. This research also highlights the importance of protecting the biodiversity of the forest in the Peruvian Amazon, to preserve the genetic resources of species and allow further genetic improvement. Background and Objectives: Ice-cream-bean is one of the most commonly used species in the Amazon region for its fruits and for shading protection of other species (e.g., cocoa and coffee plantations). Comprehensive studies about the impact of domestication on this species’ genetic diversity are needed, to find the best conservation and improvement strategies. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the genetic structure and diversity were assessed by genotyping 259 trees, sampled in five wild and 22 cultivated I. edulis populations in the Peruvian Amazon, with microsatellite markers. Pod length was measured in wild and cultivated trees. Results: The average pod length in cultivated trees was significantly higher than that in wild trees. The expected genetic diversity and the average number of alleles was higher in the wild compared to the cultivated populations; thus, a loss of genetic diversity was confirmed in the cultivated populations. The cultivated trees in the Loreto region had the highest pod length and lowest allelic richness; nevertheless, the wild populations’ genetic structure was not clearly differentiated (significantly different) from that of the cultivated populations. Conclusions: A loss of genetic diversity was confirmed in the cultivated populations. The species could have been simultaneously domesticated in multiple locations, usually from local origin. The original I. edulis Amazonian germplasm should be maintained. Cultivated populations’ new germplasm influx from wild populations should be undertaken to increase genetic diversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroforestry; domestication; Inga edulis; amazon forest; microsatellite markers; genetic diversity agroforestry; domestication; Inga edulis; amazon forest; microsatellite markers; genetic diversity
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Rollo, A.; Ribeiro, M.M.; Costa, R.L.; Santos, C.; Clavo P., Z.M.; Mandák, B.; Kalousová, M.; Vebrová, H.; Chuqulin, E.; Torres, S.G.; Aguilar, R.M.V.; Hlavsa, T.; Lojka, B. Genetic Structure and Pod Morphology of Inga edulis Cultivated vs. Wild Populations from the Peruvian Amazon. Forests 2020, 11, 655.

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