Next Article in Journal
Climatic Correlates of White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Previous Article in Journal
A Weighted Mean Value Analysis to Identify Biological Pathway Activity Changes during Poplar Seed Germination
Open AccessArticle

Transcriptome Sequencing and Expression Analysis of Genes Related to Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Leaves of Malus ‘Profusion’ Infected by Japanese Apple Rust

Institute of Ornamental Plant, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(8), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10080665
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Bio-Based Management of Forest Pests and Pathogens)
  |  
PDF [5130 KB, uploaded 7 August 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Anthocyanins play many roles in plants, including providing protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Japanese apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadae Miyabe ex G. Yamada) causes serious diseases in plants of the genus Malus and results in reduced fruit production and quality. However, few studies have been done to unravel the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin formation in rust-infected apple leaves. To identify new regulatory genes in apple leaves that may be involved in regulating rust-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, we measured anthocyanin content and sequenced the transcriptomes of rust-infected and uninfected tissues of Malus ‘Profusion’ leaves. Significant color changes and anthocyanin enrichment (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside chloride) occurred in infected tissues, whereas no significant color change and a low anthocyanin level were observed in uninfected tissue. We identified 10,045 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in these two tissue types, including 6021 genes that were upregulated in the infected tissue and 4024 genes that were downregulated. We also identified five structural genes that are putative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, 56 MYB genes, 36 bHLH genes, and one WD40 gene were identified among the obtained DEGs. According to the phylogeny of the amino acid sequences of transcription factors known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, one MYB gene (MYB114-like) and two bHLH genes (bHLH33 and bHLHA-like) may relate to anthocyanin biosynthesis in rust-infected apple leaves. These data will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation upon rust infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcriptome; Malus; anthocyanin; Japanese apple rust; differentially expressed genes; transcription factors transcriptome; Malus; anthocyanin; Japanese apple rust; differentially expressed genes; transcription factors
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, P.; Wang, Y.; Meng, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, J.; Han, M.; Yang, C.; Gan, L.; Li, H. Transcriptome Sequencing and Expression Analysis of Genes Related to Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Leaves of Malus ‘Profusion’ Infected by Japanese Apple Rust. Forests 2019, 10, 665.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top