Selective Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (SEBAM) is a promising powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys that select particular area melting in different energy density for producing complexly shaped biomedical devices. For most commercial Ti6Al4V porous medical devices, the gradient energy density is usually applied to manufacture in one component during the SEBAM process which selects different energy density built on particular zones. This paper presents gradient energy density base characterization study on an SEBAM built rectangular specimen with a size of 3 mm × 20 mm × 60 mm. The specimen was divided into three zones were built in gradient energy density from 16 to 26.5 J/mm3
. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical test. The α′ martensitic and lack of fusion were observed in the low energy density (LED) built zone. However, no α′ phase and no irregular pores were observed both in overlap energy density (OED) and high energy density (HED) built zones located at the middle and bottom of the specimen respectively. This implies the top location and lower energy density have positive effects on the cooling rate but negative effects on densification. The subsequence mechanical properties result also supports this point. Moreover, the intermetallic Ti3
Al found in the bottom may be due to the heat transfer from the following melting layer. Furthermore, the microstructure evolution in gradient energy built zones is discussed based on the findings of the microstructure and thermal history correlation analysis.
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