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Open AccessArticle

Hot Deformation Characteristics and 3-D Processing Map of a High-Titanium Nb-Micro-alloyed Steel

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China
2
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Tshwane 999136, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071501
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 29 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
Hot deformation behavior of a high-titanium Nb-micro-alloyed steel was investigated by conducting hot compression tests at the temperature of 900–1100 °C and the strain rate of 0.005–10 s−1. Using a sinh type constitutive equation, the apparent activation energy of the examined steel was 373.16 kJ/mol and the stress exponent was 6.059. The relations between Zener–Hollomon parameters versus peak stress (strain) or steady-state stress (strain) were successfully established via the Avrami equation. The dynamic recrystallization kinetics model of the examined steel was constructed and the validity was confirmed based on the experimental results. The 3-D atomic distribution maps illustrated that strain can significantly affect the values of power dissipation efficiency and the area of instability domains. The 3-D processing maps based on a dynamic material model at the strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 were established. Based on traditional and 3-D processing maps and microstructural evaluation, the optimum parameter of for a high-titanium Nb-micro-alloyed steel was determined to be 1000–1050 °C/0.1–1 s−1.
Keywords: high-titanium Nb-micro-alloyed steel; deformation behavior; constitutive modelling; traditional and 3-D processing maps high-titanium Nb-micro-alloyed steel; deformation behavior; constitutive modelling; traditional and 3-D processing maps
MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, P.; Tang, Z.; Wang, L.; Siyasiya, C.W. Hot Deformation Characteristics and 3-D Processing Map of a High-Titanium Nb-Micro-alloyed Steel. Materials 2020, 13, 1501.

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