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Open AccessReview

The Impact of Bioceramic Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in Preclinical In Vivo Studies: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella San Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
2
Section of Dentistry, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Commenda 10, 20122 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, 751003 Odisha, India
5
Dental Clinic, I.R.C.C.S. Orthopedic Institute Galeazzi, Via Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071500 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ceramics and Their Applications)
Bioceramic scaffolds are appealing for alveolar bone regeneration, because they are emerging as promising alternatives to autogenous and heterogenous bone grafts. The aim of this systematic review is to answer to the focal question: in critical-sized bone defects in experimental animal models, does the use of a bioceramic scaffolds improve new bone formation, compared with leaving the empty defect without grafting materials or using autogenous bone or deproteinized bovine-derived bone substitutes? Electronic databases were searched using specific search terms. A hand search was also undertaken. Only randomized and controlled studies in the English language, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2013 and 2018, using critical-sized bone defect models in non-medically compromised animals, were considered. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the SYRCLE tool. A meta-analysis was planned to synthesize the evidence, if possible. Thirteen studies reporting on small animal models (six studies on rats and seven on rabbits) were included. The calvarial bone defect was the most common experimental site. The empty defect was used as the only control in all studies except one. In all studies the bioceramic materials demonstrated a trend for better outcomes compared to an empty control. Due to heterogeneity in protocols and outcomes among the included studies, no meta-analysis could be performed. Bioceramics can be considered promising grafting materials, though further evidence is needed.
Keywords: animal study; bioceramic; bone grafting; critical-sized bone defect; scaffold animal study; bioceramic; bone grafting; critical-sized bone defect; scaffold
MDPI and ACS Style

Brunello, G.; Panda, S.; Schiavon, L.; Sivolella, S.; Biasetto, L.; Del Fabbro, M. The Impact of Bioceramic Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in Preclinical In Vivo Studies: A Systematic Review. Materials 2020, 13, 1500.

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