To improve thermal insulation, microencapsulated phase change materials (micro-PCMs), expandable graphite (EG), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) were introduced into polyurethane foam (PUF) to enhance the thermal stability and improve the thermal insulation behavior. The morphology of the PUF and micro-PCM was studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), while the thermophysical properties of the PUF were investigated using a hot disk thermal constants analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal stability of the PUF was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the gas products volatilized from the PUF were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TGA-FTIR). The results revealed that the thermal conductivities of the PUF were reduced because micro-PCM is effective in absorbing energy, showing that the PUF functions not only as a thermal insulation material but also as a heat sink for energy absorption. Moreover, the EG and APP were found to be effective in improving the thermal stabilities of the PUF, and the optimized formulation among EG, APP, and micro-PCMs in the PUF showed a significant synergistic effect.
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