We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to ascertain why polyurethanes (PUs) have been used in the manufacture and design of cardiovascular devices. A complete database search was performed with PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science as the information sources. The search period ranged from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2019. We recovered 1552 articles in the first stage. After the duplicate selection and extraction procedures, a total of 21 papers were included in the analysis. We concluded that polyurethanes are being applied in medical devices because they have the capability to tolerate contractile forces that originate during the cardiac cycle without undergoing plastic deformation or failure, and the capability to imitate the behaviors of different tissues. Studies have reported that polyurethanes cause severe problems when applied in blood-contacting devices that are implanted for long periods. However, the chemical compositions and surface characteristics of polyurethanes can be modified to improve their mechanical properties, blood compatibility, and endothelial cell adhesion, and to reduce their protein adhesion. These modifications enable the use of polyurethanes in the manufacture and design of cardiovascular devices.
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