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Open AccessArticle

Interface-Dominated Time-Dependent Behavior of Poled Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride–Trifluoroethylene)/Barium Titanate Composites

1
Laboratory for Processing of Advanced Composites (LPAC), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IMX-LPAC, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Group for Ferroelectrics and Functional Oxides, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SCI-STI-DD, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10132 Turin, Italy.
Materials 2020, 13(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010225
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 1 January 2020 / Published: 4 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials & Composites)
Composites in which particles of ferroelectric ceramic phase are randomly dispersed in a polymeric matrix are of interest because of flexibility, conformability, and ease of processing. However, their piezoelectric properties are rather low, unless very high volume fractions of ceramics are used. This brings agglomeration and porosity issues due to the large mismatch between the surface energies of the ceramics and of the polymer. Particle surface modification is a common approach for better dispersion; however, it may bring other effects on the properties of the composites, which are usually concealed by the huge improvement in performance due to the more homogenous microstructure. In this work, we compared poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate composites containing 15 vol.% and 60 vol.% of pristine ceramic particles or particles modified with an aminosilane or a fluorosilane. Similar morphology, with good particle dispersion and low porosity, was achieved for all composites, owing to an efficient dispersion method. The materials were poled with two different poling procedures, and the piezoelectric coefficient d33, the relative permittivity, and the poling degree of barium titanate were followed in time. We highlighted that, although similar d33 were obtained with all types of particles, the nature of the particles surface and the poling procedure were associated with different charge trapping and influenced the evolution of d33 with time. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene); PVDF; barium titanate; ferroelectric composites; piezoelectric coefficient; interfacial interactions; silanes; coupling agents poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene); PVDF; barium titanate; ferroelectric composites; piezoelectric coefficient; interfacial interactions; silanes; coupling agents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dalle Vacche, S.; Damjanovic, D.; Michaud, V.; Leterrier, Y. Interface-Dominated Time-Dependent Behavior of Poled Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride–Trifluoroethylene)/Barium Titanate Composites. Materials 2020, 13, 225.

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